Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans:

To investigate European population history around the time of the agricultural transition, we sequenced complete genomes from a ~7,500 year old early farmer from the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture from Stuttgart in Germany and an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from the Loschbour rock shelter in Luxembourg. We also generated data from seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Motala in Sweden. We compared these genomes and published ancient DNA to new data from 2,196 samples from 185 diverse populations to show that at least three ancestral groups contributed to present-day Europeans. The first are Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who are more closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians than to any present-day population. The second are West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), related to the Loschbour individual, who contributed to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners. The third are Early European Farmers (EEF), related to the Stuttgart individual, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model the deep relationships of these populations and show that about ~44% of the ancestry of EEF derived from a basal Eurasian lineage that split prior to the separation of other non-Africans.http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2013/12/23/001552

This study sequenced the genomes of  Neolithic and Mesolithic Europeans and identified three ancestral populations (and four meta-populations):
West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG)
Early European Farmer (EEF)
Ancient North Eurasian (ANE)
In the second figure above you can see which modern European populations cluster more closely to each identified ancestral groups, as not all of them influenced all Europeans. The top five greatest and least modern population hits for each of the ancestral components are as follows:
Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHG) - From an 8,000 year-old forager from the Loschbour rock shelter in Luxembourg, peaks in the East Baltic region at around 50%: 

Most: Estonian 0.495, Lithuanian 0.464, Icelandic 0.456, Belorussian 0.431, Norwegian 0.428——-Least: Spanish 0.068, Greek 0.058, Maltese 0, Ashkenazi_Jew 0, Sicilian 0



European Early Farmer (EEF) - the LBK farmer from Stuttgart, which is a hybrid sample and the result of mixture between "Basal Eurasians" and a WHG-like population possibly from the Balkans:

Most: Maltese 0.932, Ashkenazi_Jew 0.931, Sicilian 0.903, Sardinian 0.817, Spanish 0.809.——Least: Norwegian 0.411, Icelandic 0.394, Scottish 0.39,Lithuanian 0.364, Estonian 0.322

Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) -  based on a genome of a 24,000 year-old Upper Paleolithic forager from South Central Siberia. Likely present in Southern Scandinavia since at least the Mesolithic and only seems to have reached Western Europe after the Neolithic. At some point it also spread into the Americas. The meta-population for ANE includes the Upper Paleolithic forager as well as another late Upper Paleolithic sample from Central Siberia. Peaks among Estonians at 18%, and a similar level among the scots:

Most: Estonian 0.183, Scottish 0.182, Hungarian 0.179, Lithuanian 0.172, Czech 0.167——-Least: Bergamo 0.108, Sicilian 0.097, Ashkenazi_Jew 0.069, Maltese 0.068, Sardinian 0.008


Northern Europeans are mostly of indigenous European hunter-gatherer origin, while Southern Europeans are largely derived from Neolithic farmers of mixed European and Near Eastern origin. 


A second question is when and where ANE ancestors admixed with the ancestors of most present-day Europeans. Based on discontinuity in mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in Central Europe, this may have occurred during the Late Neolithic or early Bronze Age ~5,500-4,000 years ago. A central aim for future work should be to collect transects of ancient Europeans through time and space to illuminate the history of these transformations.http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pdf

Clearly this coincides with new social order and the spread of  Indo-European languages across most of the continent.
The three-way mixture model fits the data for most European populations, but could not explain the origins of all European populations, here is where the meta-populations come in:

While our three-way mixture model fits the data for most European populations, two sets of populations are poor fits. First, Sicilians, Maltese, and Ashkenazi Jews have EEF estimates beyond the 0-100% interval (SI13) and they cannot be jointly fit with other Europeans (SI12). These populations may have more Near Eastern ancestry than can be explained via EEF admixture (SI13), an inference that is also suggested by the fact that they fall in the gap between European and Near Eastern populations in the PCA of Fig. 1B. Second, we observe that Finns, Mordovians, Russians, Chuvash, and Saami from northeastern Europe do not fit our model (SI12; Extended Data Table 3). … Europeans fall along a line of slope >1 in the plot of these two statistics. However, northeastern Europeans fall away from this line in the direction of Han. This is consistent with Siberian gene flow into some northeastern Europeans after the initial ANE admixture, and may be related to the fact that Y-chromosome haplogroup N 30, 31 is shared between Siberian and northeastern Europeans32, 33 but not with western Europeans. There may in fact be multiple layers of Siberian gene flow into northeastern Europe after the initial ANE gene flow, as our analyses reported in SI 12 show that some Mordovians, Russians and Chuvash have Siberian-related admixture that is significantly more recent than that in Finns (SI12).http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pdf

Supplementary information and tables:http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-1.pdfhttp://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-2.pdfhttp://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-3.pdf
Related:
European Looking Populations Were Extant in Southern Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages
Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans:

To investigate European population history around the time of the agricultural transition, we sequenced complete genomes from a ~7,500 year old early farmer from the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture from Stuttgart in Germany and an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from the Loschbour rock shelter in Luxembourg. We also generated data from seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Motala in Sweden. We compared these genomes and published ancient DNA to new data from 2,196 samples from 185 diverse populations to show that at least three ancestral groups contributed to present-day Europeans. The first are Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who are more closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians than to any present-day population. The second are West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), related to the Loschbour individual, who contributed to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners. The third are Early European Farmers (EEF), related to the Stuttgart individual, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model the deep relationships of these populations and show that about ~44% of the ancestry of EEF derived from a basal Eurasian lineage that split prior to the separation of other non-Africans.http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2013/12/23/001552

This study sequenced the genomes of  Neolithic and Mesolithic Europeans and identified three ancestral populations (and four meta-populations):
West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG)
Early European Farmer (EEF)
Ancient North Eurasian (ANE)
In the second figure above you can see which modern European populations cluster more closely to each identified ancestral groups, as not all of them influenced all Europeans. The top five greatest and least modern population hits for each of the ancestral components are as follows:
Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHG) - From an 8,000 year-old forager from the Loschbour rock shelter in Luxembourg, peaks in the East Baltic region at around 50%: 

Most: Estonian 0.495, Lithuanian 0.464, Icelandic 0.456, Belorussian 0.431, Norwegian 0.428——-Least: Spanish 0.068, Greek 0.058, Maltese 0, Ashkenazi_Jew 0, Sicilian 0



European Early Farmer (EEF) - the LBK farmer from Stuttgart, which is a hybrid sample and the result of mixture between "Basal Eurasians" and a WHG-like population possibly from the Balkans:

Most: Maltese 0.932, Ashkenazi_Jew 0.931, Sicilian 0.903, Sardinian 0.817, Spanish 0.809.——Least: Norwegian 0.411, Icelandic 0.394, Scottish 0.39,Lithuanian 0.364, Estonian 0.322

Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) -  based on a genome of a 24,000 year-old Upper Paleolithic forager from South Central Siberia. Likely present in Southern Scandinavia since at least the Mesolithic and only seems to have reached Western Europe after the Neolithic. At some point it also spread into the Americas. The meta-population for ANE includes the Upper Paleolithic forager as well as another late Upper Paleolithic sample from Central Siberia. Peaks among Estonians at 18%, and a similar level among the scots:

Most: Estonian 0.183, Scottish 0.182, Hungarian 0.179, Lithuanian 0.172, Czech 0.167——-Least: Bergamo 0.108, Sicilian 0.097, Ashkenazi_Jew 0.069, Maltese 0.068, Sardinian 0.008


Northern Europeans are mostly of indigenous European hunter-gatherer origin, while Southern Europeans are largely derived from Neolithic farmers of mixed European and Near Eastern origin. 


A second question is when and where ANE ancestors admixed with the ancestors of most present-day Europeans. Based on discontinuity in mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in Central Europe, this may have occurred during the Late Neolithic or early Bronze Age ~5,500-4,000 years ago. A central aim for future work should be to collect transects of ancient Europeans through time and space to illuminate the history of these transformations.http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pdf

Clearly this coincides with new social order and the spread of  Indo-European languages across most of the continent.
The three-way mixture model fits the data for most European populations, but could not explain the origins of all European populations, here is where the meta-populations come in:

While our three-way mixture model fits the data for most European populations, two sets of populations are poor fits. First, Sicilians, Maltese, and Ashkenazi Jews have EEF estimates beyond the 0-100% interval (SI13) and they cannot be jointly fit with other Europeans (SI12). These populations may have more Near Eastern ancestry than can be explained via EEF admixture (SI13), an inference that is also suggested by the fact that they fall in the gap between European and Near Eastern populations in the PCA of Fig. 1B. Second, we observe that Finns, Mordovians, Russians, Chuvash, and Saami from northeastern Europe do not fit our model (SI12; Extended Data Table 3). … Europeans fall along a line of slope >1 in the plot of these two statistics. However, northeastern Europeans fall away from this line in the direction of Han. This is consistent with Siberian gene flow into some northeastern Europeans after the initial ANE admixture, and may be related to the fact that Y-chromosome haplogroup N 30, 31 is shared between Siberian and northeastern Europeans32, 33 but not with western Europeans. There may in fact be multiple layers of Siberian gene flow into northeastern Europe after the initial ANE gene flow, as our analyses reported in SI 12 show that some Mordovians, Russians and Chuvash have Siberian-related admixture that is significantly more recent than that in Finns (SI12).http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pdf

Supplementary information and tables:http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-1.pdfhttp://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-2.pdfhttp://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-3.pdf
Related:
European Looking Populations Were Extant in Southern Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages

Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans:

To investigate European population history around the time of the agricultural transition, we sequenced complete genomes from a ~7,500 year old early farmer from the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture from Stuttgart in Germany and an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from the Loschbour rock shelter in Luxembourg. We also generated data from seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Motala in Sweden. We compared these genomes and published ancient DNA to new data from 2,196 samples from 185 diverse populations to show that at least three ancestral groups contributed to present-day Europeans. The first are Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who are more closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians than to any present-day population. The second are West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), related to the Loschbour individual, who contributed to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners. The third are Early European Farmers (EEF), related to the Stuttgart individual, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model the deep relationships of these populations and show that about ~44% of the ancestry of EEF derived from a basal Eurasian lineage that split prior to the separation of other non-Africans.
http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2013/12/23/001552

This study sequenced the genomes of Neolithic and Mesolithic Europeans and identified three ancestral populations (and four meta-populations):

  • West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG)
  • Early European Farmer (EEF)
  • Ancient North Eurasian (ANE)

In the second figure above you can see which modern European populations cluster more closely to each identified ancestral groups, as not all of them influenced all Europeans. The top five greatest and least modern population hits for each of the ancestral components are as follows:

Western Hunter-Gatherers (WHG) - From an 8,000 year-old forager from the Loschbour rock shelter in Luxembourg, peaks in the East Baltic region at around 50%:

Most: Estonian 0.495, Lithuanian 0.464, Icelandic 0.456, Belorussian 0.431, Norwegian 0.428
——-
Least: Spanish 0.068, Greek 0.058, Maltese 0, Ashkenazi_Jew 0, Sicilian 0

European Early Farmer (EEF) - the LBK farmer from Stuttgart, which is a hybrid sample and the result of mixture between "Basal Eurasians" and a WHG-like population possibly from the Balkans:

Most: Maltese 0.932, Ashkenazi_Jew 0.931, Sicilian 0.903, Sardinian 0.817, Spanish 0.809.
——
Least: Norwegian 0.411, Icelandic 0.394, Scottish 0.39,Lithuanian 0.364, Estonian 0.322

Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) - based on a genome of a 24,000 year-old Upper Paleolithic forager from South Central Siberia. Likely present in Southern Scandinavia since at least the Mesolithic and only seems to have reached Western Europe after the Neolithic. At some point it also spread into the Americas. The meta-population for ANE includes the Upper Paleolithic forager as well as another late Upper Paleolithic sample from Central Siberia. Peaks among Estonians at 18%, and a similar level among the scots:

Most: Estonian 0.183, Scottish 0.182, Hungarian 0.179, Lithuanian 0.172, Czech 0.167
——-
Least: Bergamo 0.108, Sicilian 0.097, Ashkenazi_Jew 0.069, Maltese 0.068, Sardinian 0.008

Northern Europeans are mostly of indigenous European hunter-gatherer origin, while Southern Europeans are largely derived from Neolithic farmers of mixed European and Near Eastern origin.

A second question is when and where ANE ancestors admixed with the ancestors of most present-day Europeans. Based on discontinuity in mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in Central Europe, this may have occurred during the Late Neolithic or early Bronze Age ~5,500-4,000 years ago. A central aim for future work should be to collect transects of ancient Europeans through time and space to illuminate the history of these transformations.
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pdf

Clearly this coincides with new social order and the spread of Indo-European languages across most of the continent.

The three-way mixture model fits the data for most European populations, but could not explain the origins of all European populations, here is where the meta-populations come in:

While our three-way mixture model fits the data for most European populations, two sets of populations are poor fits. First, Sicilians, Maltese, and Ashkenazi Jews have EEF estimates beyond the 0-100% interval (SI13) and they cannot be jointly fit with other Europeans (SI12). These populations may have more Near Eastern ancestry than can be explained via EEF admixture (SI13), an inference that is also suggested by the fact that they fall in the gap between European and Near Eastern populations in the PCA of Fig. 1B. Second, we observe that Finns, Mordovians, Russians, Chuvash, and Saami from northeastern Europe do not fit our model (SI12; Extended Data Table 3). … Europeans fall along a line of slope >1 in the plot of these two statistics. However, northeastern Europeans fall away from this line in the direction of Han. This is consistent with Siberian gene flow into some northeastern Europeans after the initial ANE admixture, and may be related to the fact that Y-chromosome haplogroup N 30, 31 is shared between Siberian and northeastern Europeans32, 33 but not with western Europeans. There may in fact be multiple layers of Siberian gene flow into northeastern Europe after the initial ANE gene flow, as our analyses reported in SI 12 show that some Mordovians, Russians and Chuvash have Siberian-related admixture that is significantly more recent than that in Finns (SI12).
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2013/12/23/001552.full.pdf

Supplementary information and tables:
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-1.pdf
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-2.pdf
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/s…1/001552-3.pdf

Related:

Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans. Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.
Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans.

Regenerations of people of the Khvalynsk culture, on the Middle/Lower Volga (around 5th millennium BC) in Saratov Oblast, Russia, believed to be the earliest Indo-European culture in line with the Kurgan hypothesis.

Very little data on the first excavations in 1977-79 is published on the web in English, nevertheless, more information and images can be found here:

Khvalynskii eneoliticheskii mogil’nik:
http://alabin.ru/files/biblioteka/057.pdf

These people likely wouldn’t seem too out of place among Europe’s Uralic (specifically Finnish) populations. Although most Indo-Europeans were fair-haired, these early Indo-Europeans were not people you’d term as Nordic or Aryan, certainly not in genotype, it was at the start of the bronze age when light hair, eyes and skin became predominant among Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless, you can see clear affinities with modern Europeans.

The [Proto] Indo-Europeans of Old Europe: A Compendium
Lepenski Vir & Vinča Culture:

Approximately 8,500 years ago, during the Neolithic Era, Neolithic, Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated the Balkans, (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor). Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube.

The Vinca culture is part of the common cultural heritage of modern civilization:

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.
At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.” At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html

The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world:

Roughly half the world’s population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8488.html


Science has no dilemma that the Neolithic Age had its highest achievements in the culture of Vinča. That is where the mysterious “Neolithic revolution” took place. The discovery of Vinča dramatically changed the entire view on prehistoric man and revealed the superficial arrogance of modern barbarians. The culture of Vinča is the key witness in the development of European civilization and important factor for defining the identity of Europe. Archeological artifacts at the Belo Brdo site, in about ten metres of layers of earth, testify about the deposited 7,500 years of continuous living: Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze, Iron, Roman, early Slavic, early Christian, contemporary.http://gbtimes.com/travel/golden-age-mankind

Notable Discoveries:
Old European (Vinča/Danube) Script:

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old. Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Tărtăria Tablets:

The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists.http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats8/acta%207.pdfhttp://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_5__antiguas_BALKAN_DANUBE-SCRIPT.htm

Mathematical Architecture (images above), Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6500 B.C:

All the houses share a very distinct shape, built according to a complicated geometric pattern. The basis of each of the houses is a circle segment of exactly 60 degrees, constructed in the manner of an equilateral triangle. This unique layout demonstrates the level of mathematical and geometric knowledge of the inhabitants of Lepenski Vir. The peculiar choice of the equilateral triangle as a basis instead of the more common round or rectangular form suggests the significance of numbers in the lives of the settlement’s inhabitants.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepenski_Vir#Architecture
The builders of Lepenski Vir possessed a quite definite mathematical knowledge which they employed skilfully in measuring the terrain and fixing the proportions, shapes and dimensions of the houses. The foundations were laid out on a system of triangulation. It always began with the fixing of the opening in the front of the house and the dimension thus obtained was applied to the sides which meet at the rear of the house. In this way a regular isosceles triangle was obtained:http://donsmaps.com/lepenski.html

On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe: 

This ancient settlement contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making, from 7,000 years ago, and suggests that copper smelting may been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. His proposal challenges a long standing view that copper smelting spread to Europe after originating in or near the Fertile Crescent region of what’s now southern Iran. Archaeologists have dated copper smelting in the Middle East to about 6,500 years ago. Radiocarbon dates for animal bones excavated at Belovode indicate that the site was occupied from 7,350 to 6,650 years ago.Jewelry and other Belovode finds come from southeastern Europe’s ancient Vinča culture, known for having used copper vessels and other metal items.https://www.sciencenews.org/article/serbian-site-may-have-hosted-first-copper-makersFull Study: http://www.academia.edu/1957412/On_the_origins_of_extractive_metallurgy_new_evidence_from_Europe_Radivojevic_et_al_2010_JAS_37_

The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture, Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe:

7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished. The exhibition, “Cucuteni-Trypillia: A Great Civilization of Old Europe,” introduces a mysterious Neolithic people who are now believed to have forged Europe’s first civilization. Before their culture mysteriously faded, the Cucuteni-Trypillians had organized into large settlements. Predating the Sumerians and Egyptian settlements, these were basically proto-cities with buildings often arranged in concentric circles.http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26839697/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/years-ago-neolithic-optical-art-flourished/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Vinca & Cucuteni-Tryptillian cultures were responsible for some of the first major population booms in Europe, major cities (many with up to 15,000 inhabitants) include Talianki, the Trypillian settlement in Ukraine. Dobrovody, Ukraine, Maydanets, Ukraine, and Nebelivka, Ukraine.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Valley_cultures#Cities
The Lost World Of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500BC

In 4500 BC, before the invention of writing and before the first cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt were established, Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced regions in the world. The phrase “Old Europe” refers to a cycle of related cultures that thrived in southeastern Europe during the fifth and fourth millennia BC.  The heart of Old Europe was centered in the Danube River’s fertile valleys, where agriculturally rich plains were exploited by Neolithic farmers who founded long-lasting settlements—some of which grew to substantial size, with populations reaching upward of 10,000 people. Today, the intriguing and enigmatic remains of these highly developed cultures can be found at sites that extend from modern-day Serbia to Ukraine.http://isaw.nyu.edu//exhibitions/oldeurope/introduction.html
The [Proto] Indo-Europeans of Old Europe: A Compendium
Lepenski Vir & Vinča Culture:

Approximately 8,500 years ago, during the Neolithic Era, Neolithic, Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated the Balkans, (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor). Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube.

The Vinca culture is part of the common cultural heritage of modern civilization:

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.
At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.” At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html

The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world:

Roughly half the world’s population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8488.html


Science has no dilemma that the Neolithic Age had its highest achievements in the culture of Vinča. That is where the mysterious “Neolithic revolution” took place. The discovery of Vinča dramatically changed the entire view on prehistoric man and revealed the superficial arrogance of modern barbarians. The culture of Vinča is the key witness in the development of European civilization and important factor for defining the identity of Europe. Archeological artifacts at the Belo Brdo site, in about ten metres of layers of earth, testify about the deposited 7,500 years of continuous living: Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze, Iron, Roman, early Slavic, early Christian, contemporary.http://gbtimes.com/travel/golden-age-mankind

Notable Discoveries:
Old European (Vinča/Danube) Script:

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old. Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Tărtăria Tablets:

The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists.http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats8/acta%207.pdfhttp://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_5__antiguas_BALKAN_DANUBE-SCRIPT.htm

Mathematical Architecture (images above), Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6500 B.C:

All the houses share a very distinct shape, built according to a complicated geometric pattern. The basis of each of the houses is a circle segment of exactly 60 degrees, constructed in the manner of an equilateral triangle. This unique layout demonstrates the level of mathematical and geometric knowledge of the inhabitants of Lepenski Vir. The peculiar choice of the equilateral triangle as a basis instead of the more common round or rectangular form suggests the significance of numbers in the lives of the settlement’s inhabitants.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepenski_Vir#Architecture
The builders of Lepenski Vir possessed a quite definite mathematical knowledge which they employed skilfully in measuring the terrain and fixing the proportions, shapes and dimensions of the houses. The foundations were laid out on a system of triangulation. It always began with the fixing of the opening in the front of the house and the dimension thus obtained was applied to the sides which meet at the rear of the house. In this way a regular isosceles triangle was obtained:http://donsmaps.com/lepenski.html

On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe: 

This ancient settlement contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making, from 7,000 years ago, and suggests that copper smelting may been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. His proposal challenges a long standing view that copper smelting spread to Europe after originating in or near the Fertile Crescent region of what’s now southern Iran. Archaeologists have dated copper smelting in the Middle East to about 6,500 years ago. Radiocarbon dates for animal bones excavated at Belovode indicate that the site was occupied from 7,350 to 6,650 years ago.Jewelry and other Belovode finds come from southeastern Europe’s ancient Vinča culture, known for having used copper vessels and other metal items.https://www.sciencenews.org/article/serbian-site-may-have-hosted-first-copper-makersFull Study: http://www.academia.edu/1957412/On_the_origins_of_extractive_metallurgy_new_evidence_from_Europe_Radivojevic_et_al_2010_JAS_37_

The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture, Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe:

7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished. The exhibition, “Cucuteni-Trypillia: A Great Civilization of Old Europe,” introduces a mysterious Neolithic people who are now believed to have forged Europe’s first civilization. Before their culture mysteriously faded, the Cucuteni-Trypillians had organized into large settlements. Predating the Sumerians and Egyptian settlements, these were basically proto-cities with buildings often arranged in concentric circles.http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26839697/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/years-ago-neolithic-optical-art-flourished/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Vinca & Cucuteni-Tryptillian cultures were responsible for some of the first major population booms in Europe, major cities (many with up to 15,000 inhabitants) include Talianki, the Trypillian settlement in Ukraine. Dobrovody, Ukraine, Maydanets, Ukraine, and Nebelivka, Ukraine.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Valley_cultures#Cities
The Lost World Of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500BC

In 4500 BC, before the invention of writing and before the first cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt were established, Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced regions in the world. The phrase “Old Europe” refers to a cycle of related cultures that thrived in southeastern Europe during the fifth and fourth millennia BC.  The heart of Old Europe was centered in the Danube River’s fertile valleys, where agriculturally rich plains were exploited by Neolithic farmers who founded long-lasting settlements—some of which grew to substantial size, with populations reaching upward of 10,000 people. Today, the intriguing and enigmatic remains of these highly developed cultures can be found at sites that extend from modern-day Serbia to Ukraine.http://isaw.nyu.edu//exhibitions/oldeurope/introduction.html
The [Proto] Indo-Europeans of Old Europe: A Compendium
Lepenski Vir & Vinča Culture:

Approximately 8,500 years ago, during the Neolithic Era, Neolithic, Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated the Balkans, (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor). Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube.

The Vinca culture is part of the common cultural heritage of modern civilization:

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.
At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.” At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html

The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world:

Roughly half the world’s population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8488.html


Science has no dilemma that the Neolithic Age had its highest achievements in the culture of Vinča. That is where the mysterious “Neolithic revolution” took place. The discovery of Vinča dramatically changed the entire view on prehistoric man and revealed the superficial arrogance of modern barbarians. The culture of Vinča is the key witness in the development of European civilization and important factor for defining the identity of Europe. Archeological artifacts at the Belo Brdo site, in about ten metres of layers of earth, testify about the deposited 7,500 years of continuous living: Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze, Iron, Roman, early Slavic, early Christian, contemporary.http://gbtimes.com/travel/golden-age-mankind

Notable Discoveries:
Old European (Vinča/Danube) Script:

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old. Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Tărtăria Tablets:

The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists.http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats8/acta%207.pdfhttp://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_5__antiguas_BALKAN_DANUBE-SCRIPT.htm

Mathematical Architecture (images above), Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6500 B.C:

All the houses share a very distinct shape, built according to a complicated geometric pattern. The basis of each of the houses is a circle segment of exactly 60 degrees, constructed in the manner of an equilateral triangle. This unique layout demonstrates the level of mathematical and geometric knowledge of the inhabitants of Lepenski Vir. The peculiar choice of the equilateral triangle as a basis instead of the more common round or rectangular form suggests the significance of numbers in the lives of the settlement’s inhabitants.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepenski_Vir#Architecture
The builders of Lepenski Vir possessed a quite definite mathematical knowledge which they employed skilfully in measuring the terrain and fixing the proportions, shapes and dimensions of the houses. The foundations were laid out on a system of triangulation. It always began with the fixing of the opening in the front of the house and the dimension thus obtained was applied to the sides which meet at the rear of the house. In this way a regular isosceles triangle was obtained:http://donsmaps.com/lepenski.html

On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe: 

This ancient settlement contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making, from 7,000 years ago, and suggests that copper smelting may been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. His proposal challenges a long standing view that copper smelting spread to Europe after originating in or near the Fertile Crescent region of what’s now southern Iran. Archaeologists have dated copper smelting in the Middle East to about 6,500 years ago. Radiocarbon dates for animal bones excavated at Belovode indicate that the site was occupied from 7,350 to 6,650 years ago.Jewelry and other Belovode finds come from southeastern Europe’s ancient Vinča culture, known for having used copper vessels and other metal items.https://www.sciencenews.org/article/serbian-site-may-have-hosted-first-copper-makersFull Study: http://www.academia.edu/1957412/On_the_origins_of_extractive_metallurgy_new_evidence_from_Europe_Radivojevic_et_al_2010_JAS_37_

The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture, Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe:

7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished. The exhibition, “Cucuteni-Trypillia: A Great Civilization of Old Europe,” introduces a mysterious Neolithic people who are now believed to have forged Europe’s first civilization. Before their culture mysteriously faded, the Cucuteni-Trypillians had organized into large settlements. Predating the Sumerians and Egyptian settlements, these were basically proto-cities with buildings often arranged in concentric circles.http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26839697/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/years-ago-neolithic-optical-art-flourished/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Vinca & Cucuteni-Tryptillian cultures were responsible for some of the first major population booms in Europe, major cities (many with up to 15,000 inhabitants) include Talianki, the Trypillian settlement in Ukraine. Dobrovody, Ukraine, Maydanets, Ukraine, and Nebelivka, Ukraine.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Valley_cultures#Cities
The Lost World Of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500BC

In 4500 BC, before the invention of writing and before the first cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt were established, Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced regions in the world. The phrase “Old Europe” refers to a cycle of related cultures that thrived in southeastern Europe during the fifth and fourth millennia BC.  The heart of Old Europe was centered in the Danube River’s fertile valleys, where agriculturally rich plains were exploited by Neolithic farmers who founded long-lasting settlements—some of which grew to substantial size, with populations reaching upward of 10,000 people. Today, the intriguing and enigmatic remains of these highly developed cultures can be found at sites that extend from modern-day Serbia to Ukraine.http://isaw.nyu.edu//exhibitions/oldeurope/introduction.html
The [Proto] Indo-Europeans of Old Europe: A Compendium
Lepenski Vir & Vinča Culture:

Approximately 8,500 years ago, during the Neolithic Era, Neolithic, Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated the Balkans, (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor). Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube.

The Vinca culture is part of the common cultural heritage of modern civilization:

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.
At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.” At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html

The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world:

Roughly half the world’s population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8488.html


Science has no dilemma that the Neolithic Age had its highest achievements in the culture of Vinča. That is where the mysterious “Neolithic revolution” took place. The discovery of Vinča dramatically changed the entire view on prehistoric man and revealed the superficial arrogance of modern barbarians. The culture of Vinča is the key witness in the development of European civilization and important factor for defining the identity of Europe. Archeological artifacts at the Belo Brdo site, in about ten metres of layers of earth, testify about the deposited 7,500 years of continuous living: Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze, Iron, Roman, early Slavic, early Christian, contemporary.http://gbtimes.com/travel/golden-age-mankind

Notable Discoveries:
Old European (Vinča/Danube) Script:

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old. Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Tărtăria Tablets:

The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists.http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats8/acta%207.pdfhttp://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_5__antiguas_BALKAN_DANUBE-SCRIPT.htm

Mathematical Architecture (images above), Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6500 B.C:

All the houses share a very distinct shape, built according to a complicated geometric pattern. The basis of each of the houses is a circle segment of exactly 60 degrees, constructed in the manner of an equilateral triangle. This unique layout demonstrates the level of mathematical and geometric knowledge of the inhabitants of Lepenski Vir. The peculiar choice of the equilateral triangle as a basis instead of the more common round or rectangular form suggests the significance of numbers in the lives of the settlement’s inhabitants.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepenski_Vir#Architecture
The builders of Lepenski Vir possessed a quite definite mathematical knowledge which they employed skilfully in measuring the terrain and fixing the proportions, shapes and dimensions of the houses. The foundations were laid out on a system of triangulation. It always began with the fixing of the opening in the front of the house and the dimension thus obtained was applied to the sides which meet at the rear of the house. In this way a regular isosceles triangle was obtained:http://donsmaps.com/lepenski.html

On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe: 

This ancient settlement contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making, from 7,000 years ago, and suggests that copper smelting may been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. His proposal challenges a long standing view that copper smelting spread to Europe after originating in or near the Fertile Crescent region of what’s now southern Iran. Archaeologists have dated copper smelting in the Middle East to about 6,500 years ago. Radiocarbon dates for animal bones excavated at Belovode indicate that the site was occupied from 7,350 to 6,650 years ago.Jewelry and other Belovode finds come from southeastern Europe’s ancient Vinča culture, known for having used copper vessels and other metal items.https://www.sciencenews.org/article/serbian-site-may-have-hosted-first-copper-makersFull Study: http://www.academia.edu/1957412/On_the_origins_of_extractive_metallurgy_new_evidence_from_Europe_Radivojevic_et_al_2010_JAS_37_

The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture, Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe:

7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished. The exhibition, “Cucuteni-Trypillia: A Great Civilization of Old Europe,” introduces a mysterious Neolithic people who are now believed to have forged Europe’s first civilization. Before their culture mysteriously faded, the Cucuteni-Trypillians had organized into large settlements. Predating the Sumerians and Egyptian settlements, these were basically proto-cities with buildings often arranged in concentric circles.http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26839697/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/years-ago-neolithic-optical-art-flourished/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Vinca & Cucuteni-Tryptillian cultures were responsible for some of the first major population booms in Europe, major cities (many with up to 15,000 inhabitants) include Talianki, the Trypillian settlement in Ukraine. Dobrovody, Ukraine, Maydanets, Ukraine, and Nebelivka, Ukraine.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Valley_cultures#Cities
The Lost World Of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500BC

In 4500 BC, before the invention of writing and before the first cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt were established, Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced regions in the world. The phrase “Old Europe” refers to a cycle of related cultures that thrived in southeastern Europe during the fifth and fourth millennia BC.  The heart of Old Europe was centered in the Danube River’s fertile valleys, where agriculturally rich plains were exploited by Neolithic farmers who founded long-lasting settlements—some of which grew to substantial size, with populations reaching upward of 10,000 people. Today, the intriguing and enigmatic remains of these highly developed cultures can be found at sites that extend from modern-day Serbia to Ukraine.http://isaw.nyu.edu//exhibitions/oldeurope/introduction.html
The [Proto] Indo-Europeans of Old Europe: A Compendium
Lepenski Vir & Vinča Culture:

Approximately 8,500 years ago, during the Neolithic Era, Neolithic, Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated the Balkans, (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor). Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube.

The Vinca culture is part of the common cultural heritage of modern civilization:

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.
At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.” At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html

The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world:

Roughly half the world’s population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8488.html


Science has no dilemma that the Neolithic Age had its highest achievements in the culture of Vinča. That is where the mysterious “Neolithic revolution” took place. The discovery of Vinča dramatically changed the entire view on prehistoric man and revealed the superficial arrogance of modern barbarians. The culture of Vinča is the key witness in the development of European civilization and important factor for defining the identity of Europe. Archeological artifacts at the Belo Brdo site, in about ten metres of layers of earth, testify about the deposited 7,500 years of continuous living: Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze, Iron, Roman, early Slavic, early Christian, contemporary.http://gbtimes.com/travel/golden-age-mankind

Notable Discoveries:
Old European (Vinča/Danube) Script:

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old. Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Tărtăria Tablets:

The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists.http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats8/acta%207.pdfhttp://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_5__antiguas_BALKAN_DANUBE-SCRIPT.htm

Mathematical Architecture (images above), Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6500 B.C:

All the houses share a very distinct shape, built according to a complicated geometric pattern. The basis of each of the houses is a circle segment of exactly 60 degrees, constructed in the manner of an equilateral triangle. This unique layout demonstrates the level of mathematical and geometric knowledge of the inhabitants of Lepenski Vir. The peculiar choice of the equilateral triangle as a basis instead of the more common round or rectangular form suggests the significance of numbers in the lives of the settlement’s inhabitants.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepenski_Vir#Architecture
The builders of Lepenski Vir possessed a quite definite mathematical knowledge which they employed skilfully in measuring the terrain and fixing the proportions, shapes and dimensions of the houses. The foundations were laid out on a system of triangulation. It always began with the fixing of the opening in the front of the house and the dimension thus obtained was applied to the sides which meet at the rear of the house. In this way a regular isosceles triangle was obtained:http://donsmaps.com/lepenski.html

On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe: 

This ancient settlement contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making, from 7,000 years ago, and suggests that copper smelting may been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. His proposal challenges a long standing view that copper smelting spread to Europe after originating in or near the Fertile Crescent region of what’s now southern Iran. Archaeologists have dated copper smelting in the Middle East to about 6,500 years ago. Radiocarbon dates for animal bones excavated at Belovode indicate that the site was occupied from 7,350 to 6,650 years ago.Jewelry and other Belovode finds come from southeastern Europe’s ancient Vinča culture, known for having used copper vessels and other metal items.https://www.sciencenews.org/article/serbian-site-may-have-hosted-first-copper-makersFull Study: http://www.academia.edu/1957412/On_the_origins_of_extractive_metallurgy_new_evidence_from_Europe_Radivojevic_et_al_2010_JAS_37_

The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture, Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe:

7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished. The exhibition, “Cucuteni-Trypillia: A Great Civilization of Old Europe,” introduces a mysterious Neolithic people who are now believed to have forged Europe’s first civilization. Before their culture mysteriously faded, the Cucuteni-Trypillians had organized into large settlements. Predating the Sumerians and Egyptian settlements, these were basically proto-cities with buildings often arranged in concentric circles.http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26839697/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/years-ago-neolithic-optical-art-flourished/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Vinca & Cucuteni-Tryptillian cultures were responsible for some of the first major population booms in Europe, major cities (many with up to 15,000 inhabitants) include Talianki, the Trypillian settlement in Ukraine. Dobrovody, Ukraine, Maydanets, Ukraine, and Nebelivka, Ukraine.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Valley_cultures#Cities
The Lost World Of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500BC

In 4500 BC, before the invention of writing and before the first cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt were established, Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced regions in the world. The phrase “Old Europe” refers to a cycle of related cultures that thrived in southeastern Europe during the fifth and fourth millennia BC.  The heart of Old Europe was centered in the Danube River’s fertile valleys, where agriculturally rich plains were exploited by Neolithic farmers who founded long-lasting settlements—some of which grew to substantial size, with populations reaching upward of 10,000 people. Today, the intriguing and enigmatic remains of these highly developed cultures can be found at sites that extend from modern-day Serbia to Ukraine.http://isaw.nyu.edu//exhibitions/oldeurope/introduction.html
The [Proto] Indo-Europeans of Old Europe: A Compendium
Lepenski Vir & Vinča Culture:

Approximately 8,500 years ago, during the Neolithic Era, Neolithic, Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated the Balkans, (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor). Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube.

The Vinca culture is part of the common cultural heritage of modern civilization:

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.
At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.” At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html

The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world:

Roughly half the world’s population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8488.html


Science has no dilemma that the Neolithic Age had its highest achievements in the culture of Vinča. That is where the mysterious “Neolithic revolution” took place. The discovery of Vinča dramatically changed the entire view on prehistoric man and revealed the superficial arrogance of modern barbarians. The culture of Vinča is the key witness in the development of European civilization and important factor for defining the identity of Europe. Archeological artifacts at the Belo Brdo site, in about ten metres of layers of earth, testify about the deposited 7,500 years of continuous living: Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze, Iron, Roman, early Slavic, early Christian, contemporary.http://gbtimes.com/travel/golden-age-mankind

Notable Discoveries:
Old European (Vinča/Danube) Script:

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old. Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Tărtăria Tablets:

The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists.http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats8/acta%207.pdfhttp://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_5__antiguas_BALKAN_DANUBE-SCRIPT.htm

Mathematical Architecture (images above), Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6500 B.C:

All the houses share a very distinct shape, built according to a complicated geometric pattern. The basis of each of the houses is a circle segment of exactly 60 degrees, constructed in the manner of an equilateral triangle. This unique layout demonstrates the level of mathematical and geometric knowledge of the inhabitants of Lepenski Vir. The peculiar choice of the equilateral triangle as a basis instead of the more common round or rectangular form suggests the significance of numbers in the lives of the settlement’s inhabitants.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepenski_Vir#Architecture
The builders of Lepenski Vir possessed a quite definite mathematical knowledge which they employed skilfully in measuring the terrain and fixing the proportions, shapes and dimensions of the houses. The foundations were laid out on a system of triangulation. It always began with the fixing of the opening in the front of the house and the dimension thus obtained was applied to the sides which meet at the rear of the house. In this way a regular isosceles triangle was obtained:http://donsmaps.com/lepenski.html

On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe: 

This ancient settlement contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making, from 7,000 years ago, and suggests that copper smelting may been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. His proposal challenges a long standing view that copper smelting spread to Europe after originating in or near the Fertile Crescent region of what’s now southern Iran. Archaeologists have dated copper smelting in the Middle East to about 6,500 years ago. Radiocarbon dates for animal bones excavated at Belovode indicate that the site was occupied from 7,350 to 6,650 years ago.Jewelry and other Belovode finds come from southeastern Europe’s ancient Vinča culture, known for having used copper vessels and other metal items.https://www.sciencenews.org/article/serbian-site-may-have-hosted-first-copper-makersFull Study: http://www.academia.edu/1957412/On_the_origins_of_extractive_metallurgy_new_evidence_from_Europe_Radivojevic_et_al_2010_JAS_37_

The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture, Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe:

7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished. The exhibition, “Cucuteni-Trypillia: A Great Civilization of Old Europe,” introduces a mysterious Neolithic people who are now believed to have forged Europe’s first civilization. Before their culture mysteriously faded, the Cucuteni-Trypillians had organized into large settlements. Predating the Sumerians and Egyptian settlements, these were basically proto-cities with buildings often arranged in concentric circles.http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26839697/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/years-ago-neolithic-optical-art-flourished/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Vinca & Cucuteni-Tryptillian cultures were responsible for some of the first major population booms in Europe, major cities (many with up to 15,000 inhabitants) include Talianki, the Trypillian settlement in Ukraine. Dobrovody, Ukraine, Maydanets, Ukraine, and Nebelivka, Ukraine.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Valley_cultures#Cities
The Lost World Of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500BC

In 4500 BC, before the invention of writing and before the first cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt were established, Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced regions in the world. The phrase “Old Europe” refers to a cycle of related cultures that thrived in southeastern Europe during the fifth and fourth millennia BC.  The heart of Old Europe was centered in the Danube River’s fertile valleys, where agriculturally rich plains were exploited by Neolithic farmers who founded long-lasting settlements—some of which grew to substantial size, with populations reaching upward of 10,000 people. Today, the intriguing and enigmatic remains of these highly developed cultures can be found at sites that extend from modern-day Serbia to Ukraine.http://isaw.nyu.edu//exhibitions/oldeurope/introduction.html
  • The [Proto] Indo-Europeans of Old Europe: A Compendium

Lepenski Vir & Vinča Culture:

Approximately 8,500 years ago, during the Neolithic Era, Neolithic, Starčevo, and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated the Balkans, (as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor). Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube.

The Vinca culture is part of the common cultural heritage of modern civilization:

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.

At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.” At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/01/science/01arch.html

The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world:

Roughly half the world’s population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization.
http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8488.html

Science has no dilemma that the Neolithic Age had its highest achievements in the culture of Vinča. That is where the mysterious “Neolithic revolution” took place. The discovery of Vinča dramatically changed the entire view on prehistoric man and revealed the superficial arrogance of modern barbarians. The culture of Vinča is the key witness in the development of European civilization and important factor for defining the identity of Europe. Archeological artifacts at the Belo Brdo site, in about ten metres of layers of earth, testify about the deposited 7,500 years of continuous living: Neolithic Age, Copper Age, Bronze, Iron, Roman, early Slavic, early Christian, contemporary.
http://gbtimes.com/travel/golden-age-mankind

  • Notable Discoveries:

Old European (Vinča/Danube) Script:

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old. Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years.
http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Tărtăria Tablets:

The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria in Romania.The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists.
http://arheologie.ulbsibiu.ro/publicatii/ats/ats8/acta%207.pdf
http://www.uned.es/geo-1-historia-antigua-universal/ESCRITURAS_ANTIGUA/Escrituras_5__antiguas_BALKAN_DANUBE-SCRIPT.htm

Mathematical Architecture (images above), Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6500 B.C:

All the houses share a very distinct shape, built according to a complicated geometric pattern. The basis of each of the houses is a circle segment of exactly 60 degrees, constructed in the manner of an equilateral triangle. This unique layout demonstrates the level of mathematical and geometric knowledge of the inhabitants of Lepenski Vir. The peculiar choice of the equilateral triangle as a basis instead of the more common round or rectangular form suggests the significance of numbers in the lives of the settlement’s inhabitants.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepenski_Vir#Architecture

The builders of Lepenski Vir possessed a quite definite mathematical knowledge which they employed skilfully in measuring the terrain and fixing the proportions, shapes and dimensions of the houses. The foundations were laid out on a system of triangulation. It always began with the fixing of the opening in the front of the house and the dimension thus obtained was applied to the sides which meet at the rear of the house. In this way a regular isosceles triangle was obtained:
http://donsmaps.com/lepenski.html

On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe:

This ancient settlement contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making, from 7,000 years ago, and suggests that copper smelting may been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. His proposal challenges a long standing view that copper smelting spread to Europe after originating in or near the Fertile Crescent region of what’s now southern Iran. Archaeologists have dated copper smelting in the Middle East to about 6,500 years ago. Radiocarbon dates for animal bones excavated at Belovode indicate that the site was occupied from 7,350 to 6,650 years ago.Jewelry and other Belovode finds come from southeastern Europe’s ancient Vinča culture, known for having used copper vessels and other metal items.
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/serbian-site-may-have-hosted-first-copper-makers
Full Study: http://www.academia.edu/1957412/On_the_origins_of_extractive_metallurgy_new_evidence_from_Europe_Radivojevic_et_al_2010_JAS_37_

The Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture, Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture in Eastern Europe:

7,000 years ago, Neolithic optical art flourished. The exhibition, “Cucuteni-Trypillia: A Great Civilization of Old Europe,” introduces a mysterious Neolithic people who are now believed to have forged Europe’s first civilization. Before their culture mysteriously faded, the Cucuteni-Trypillians had organized into large settlements. Predating the Sumerians and Egyptian settlements, these were basically proto-cities with buildings often arranged in concentric circles.
http://www.nbcnews.com/id/26839697/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/years-ago-neolithic-optical-art-flourished/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Vinca & Cucuteni-Tryptillian cultures were responsible for
some of the first major population booms in Europe, major cities (many with up to 15,000 inhabitants) include Talianki, the Trypillian settlement in Ukraine. Dobrovody, Ukraine, Maydanets, Ukraine, and Nebelivka, Ukraine.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_Valley_cultures#Cities

The Lost World Of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000 - 3500BC

In 4500 BC, before the invention of writing and before the first cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt were established, Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced regions in the world. The phrase “Old Europe” refers to a cycle of related cultures that thrived in southeastern Europe during the fifth and fourth millennia BC. The heart of Old Europe was centered in the Danube River’s fertile valleys, where agriculturally rich plains were exploited by Neolithic farmers who founded long-lasting settlements—some of which grew to substantial size, with populations reaching upward of 10,000 people. Today, the intriguing and enigmatic remains of these highly developed cultures can be found at sites that extend from modern-day Serbia to Ukraine.
http://isaw.nyu.edu//exhibitions/oldeurope/introduction.html

ixachitlanonsp:

The Oath of the Sword, “Schwert-Schwur”

It depicts in startling reality the sacred oneness that the old Teutonic tribes felt for the sword. The Schwert-Schwur or Eid der Klinge personified this infinity with the weapon. This was the oath of the sword or blade. In this ceremony the brotherhood of warriors pledged their loyalty and fidelity to folk and community. All the tribes observed this sacred oathing, the Cimbri, and the Teutones and the Istavones, who after war, became the Franks. The Chauci, who became the Saxons, all were united in the importance of the oath. The Germanic tribes regarded each other as brethren and equals and they were united under great leaders. 

Warriors who promised loyalty and fidelity to the Fuhrer

(via vandrare)

Q

Anonymous asked:

I don't understand your logic. You say children are "better off raised by a mother and father figure," but that it "doesn't apply to single parents." Children of single parents are getting the same amount of influence from the opposite gender of their parent as same gender couples' children. How are single parents providing it any differently? I am not bringing my own opinions into this, I am solely working within what YOU said, and the flawed logic therein.

A

unapologetically-indie:

Not repeating myself anymore.

http://unapologetically-indie.tumblr.com/post/83228002157/children-parents

The issue is that so many people are either raised by, or know someone raised by, single parent families, or whose parents were divorced, or just someone from an adoptive family, and it dictates their ability to think rationally about (or rather, just admit) an elevated risk of certain life outcomes, behaviours & attitudes among people who are the products of these households.

Fatherless households in particular place an extra burden on society with the broken men they produce.

orange-pill:

arkaimcity:

Solutreans Are The Indigenous Americans
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNTXCMYjwEk-“In the Ice Age Columbus DVD, fascinating new archaeological data and DNA research Discover’s that Europeans discovered the Americas 17,000 years prior to the birth of Columbus.
- As you will see in American history DVDs, they overcome starvation and storms along the way, with the help of a revolutionary weapons technology they would later be wiped out by the invading peoples of Asia. But awaiting the pioneers’ arrival is a stark, empty continent, filled with a plethora of bizarre and lethal animals — all brought to life by brilliant computer animation. The Ice Age Columbus DVD, firmly rooted in the latest scientific discoveries, is a compelling vision of the greatest migration in human history of Europeans returning to the land which once broke off of their own ethnic home lands of Europe.” 


Indigenous Stone-age Europeans ‘were the first to set foot on North America’
"Stone-age Europeans were the first to set foot on North America, beating American Indians by some 10,000 years, new archaeological evidence suggests.”http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/9110838/Stone-age-Europeans-were-the-first-to-set-foot-on-North-America.html


Anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists agree the Solutreans (sometimes referred to as ethnic Japhethites) were the first in North America. Archaeologists and RNA specialists also agree North America broke off of the side of Europe, and that South America broke off of the side of Africa. Essentially:North America = European. South America = African.
-The RNA of the plants in North America are related to the RNA plant species found in Europe, not Asia. -The RNA found in plants in South America are the closest related to RNA in plant life found in Western Africa._________________________________
Windover, Florida Bog Mummies (Caucasoid):http://youtu.be/C2LbIE7juOw
Kennewick Man - Clovis/Solutrean - Haplogroup X:http://youtu.be/lIkkA8STBDI-“This fixed the age of the skeleton at approximately 9,300 years (8,400 uncalibrated “radiocarbon years”), not the nineteenth century, as had originally been assumed.[4] After studying the bones, Chatters concluded they belonged to a Caucasoid male about 68 inches (173 cm) tall who had died in his mid fifties.[4]” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennewick_man


WHO GENOCIDED WHOM?
Archaeology Story Of The Century: Europeans Were Original Inhabitants Of Americas-“New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.
-A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.
-The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity’s spread around the globe.
-Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.”http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html


This one may only be about tools, but evidence is evidence. They are European-style tools that are dated older than the oldest Asiatic artifacts.Clovis spear and arrowhead technology is developed from Solutrean technology. The oldest human remains found in North America are European.
They cannot be forged steel tools, or copper for that matter, as the European settlements never developed beyond the Stone Age, they were absorbed/suffered genocide by the arriving Asiatics.
Link relating to Sarah Winnemucca (last two pictures above):
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Si-Te-Cah

I’m not convinced about the Solutrean hypothesis, and it doesn’t matter to me that much one way or another. However, it is interesting. Also, standard theory says that humans crossed the ocean to reach Australia even earlier than Solutreans are said to have crossed the Atlantic to reach America, so it isn’t ridiculous. It would be more surprising if no Europeans ever reached America during the stone age.

Neither am I. I’ve abandoned this post because of the lack of any actual data. See this post:http://arkaimcity.tumblr.com/post/64326752066
Further, ancestral North Europeans and ancestral East Asians had been mixing as far back as 20,000 years ago. orange-pill:

arkaimcity:

Solutreans Are The Indigenous Americans
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNTXCMYjwEk-“In the Ice Age Columbus DVD, fascinating new archaeological data and DNA research Discover’s that Europeans discovered the Americas 17,000 years prior to the birth of Columbus.
- As you will see in American history DVDs, they overcome starvation and storms along the way, with the help of a revolutionary weapons technology they would later be wiped out by the invading peoples of Asia. But awaiting the pioneers’ arrival is a stark, empty continent, filled with a plethora of bizarre and lethal animals — all brought to life by brilliant computer animation. The Ice Age Columbus DVD, firmly rooted in the latest scientific discoveries, is a compelling vision of the greatest migration in human history of Europeans returning to the land which once broke off of their own ethnic home lands of Europe.” 


Indigenous Stone-age Europeans ‘were the first to set foot on North America’
"Stone-age Europeans were the first to set foot on North America, beating American Indians by some 10,000 years, new archaeological evidence suggests.”http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/9110838/Stone-age-Europeans-were-the-first-to-set-foot-on-North-America.html


Anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists agree the Solutreans (sometimes referred to as ethnic Japhethites) were the first in North America. Archaeologists and RNA specialists also agree North America broke off of the side of Europe, and that South America broke off of the side of Africa. Essentially:North America = European. South America = African.
-The RNA of the plants in North America are related to the RNA plant species found in Europe, not Asia. -The RNA found in plants in South America are the closest related to RNA in plant life found in Western Africa._________________________________
Windover, Florida Bog Mummies (Caucasoid):http://youtu.be/C2LbIE7juOw
Kennewick Man - Clovis/Solutrean - Haplogroup X:http://youtu.be/lIkkA8STBDI-“This fixed the age of the skeleton at approximately 9,300 years (8,400 uncalibrated “radiocarbon years”), not the nineteenth century, as had originally been assumed.[4] After studying the bones, Chatters concluded they belonged to a Caucasoid male about 68 inches (173 cm) tall who had died in his mid fifties.[4]” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennewick_man


WHO GENOCIDED WHOM?
Archaeology Story Of The Century: Europeans Were Original Inhabitants Of Americas-“New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.
-A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.
-The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity’s spread around the globe.
-Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.”http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html


This one may only be about tools, but evidence is evidence. They are European-style tools that are dated older than the oldest Asiatic artifacts.Clovis spear and arrowhead technology is developed from Solutrean technology. The oldest human remains found in North America are European.
They cannot be forged steel tools, or copper for that matter, as the European settlements never developed beyond the Stone Age, they were absorbed/suffered genocide by the arriving Asiatics.
Link relating to Sarah Winnemucca (last two pictures above):
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Si-Te-Cah

I’m not convinced about the Solutrean hypothesis, and it doesn’t matter to me that much one way or another. However, it is interesting. Also, standard theory says that humans crossed the ocean to reach Australia even earlier than Solutreans are said to have crossed the Atlantic to reach America, so it isn’t ridiculous. It would be more surprising if no Europeans ever reached America during the stone age.

Neither am I. I’ve abandoned this post because of the lack of any actual data. See this post:http://arkaimcity.tumblr.com/post/64326752066
Further, ancestral North Europeans and ancestral East Asians had been mixing as far back as 20,000 years ago. orange-pill:

arkaimcity:

Solutreans Are The Indigenous Americans
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNTXCMYjwEk-“In the Ice Age Columbus DVD, fascinating new archaeological data and DNA research Discover’s that Europeans discovered the Americas 17,000 years prior to the birth of Columbus.
- As you will see in American history DVDs, they overcome starvation and storms along the way, with the help of a revolutionary weapons technology they would later be wiped out by the invading peoples of Asia. But awaiting the pioneers’ arrival is a stark, empty continent, filled with a plethora of bizarre and lethal animals — all brought to life by brilliant computer animation. The Ice Age Columbus DVD, firmly rooted in the latest scientific discoveries, is a compelling vision of the greatest migration in human history of Europeans returning to the land which once broke off of their own ethnic home lands of Europe.” 


Indigenous Stone-age Europeans ‘were the first to set foot on North America’
"Stone-age Europeans were the first to set foot on North America, beating American Indians by some 10,000 years, new archaeological evidence suggests.”http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/9110838/Stone-age-Europeans-were-the-first-to-set-foot-on-North-America.html


Anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists agree the Solutreans (sometimes referred to as ethnic Japhethites) were the first in North America. Archaeologists and RNA specialists also agree North America broke off of the side of Europe, and that South America broke off of the side of Africa. Essentially:North America = European. South America = African.
-The RNA of the plants in North America are related to the RNA plant species found in Europe, not Asia. -The RNA found in plants in South America are the closest related to RNA in plant life found in Western Africa._________________________________
Windover, Florida Bog Mummies (Caucasoid):http://youtu.be/C2LbIE7juOw
Kennewick Man - Clovis/Solutrean - Haplogroup X:http://youtu.be/lIkkA8STBDI-“This fixed the age of the skeleton at approximately 9,300 years (8,400 uncalibrated “radiocarbon years”), not the nineteenth century, as had originally been assumed.[4] After studying the bones, Chatters concluded they belonged to a Caucasoid male about 68 inches (173 cm) tall who had died in his mid fifties.[4]” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennewick_man


WHO GENOCIDED WHOM?
Archaeology Story Of The Century: Europeans Were Original Inhabitants Of Americas-“New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.
-A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.
-The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity’s spread around the globe.
-Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.”http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html


This one may only be about tools, but evidence is evidence. They are European-style tools that are dated older than the oldest Asiatic artifacts.Clovis spear and arrowhead technology is developed from Solutrean technology. The oldest human remains found in North America are European.
They cannot be forged steel tools, or copper for that matter, as the European settlements never developed beyond the Stone Age, they were absorbed/suffered genocide by the arriving Asiatics.
Link relating to Sarah Winnemucca (last two pictures above):
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Si-Te-Cah

I’m not convinced about the Solutrean hypothesis, and it doesn’t matter to me that much one way or another. However, it is interesting. Also, standard theory says that humans crossed the ocean to reach Australia even earlier than Solutreans are said to have crossed the Atlantic to reach America, so it isn’t ridiculous. It would be more surprising if no Europeans ever reached America during the stone age.

Neither am I. I’ve abandoned this post because of the lack of any actual data. See this post:http://arkaimcity.tumblr.com/post/64326752066
Further, ancestral North Europeans and ancestral East Asians had been mixing as far back as 20,000 years ago.

orange-pill:

arkaimcity:

Solutreans Are The Indigenous Americans

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNTXCMYjwEk
-“In the Ice Age Columbus DVD, fascinating new archaeological data and DNA research Discover’s that Europeans discovered the Americas 17,000 years prior to the birth of Columbus.

- As you will see in American history DVDs, they overcome starvation and storms along the way, with the help of a revolutionary weapons technology they would later be wiped out by the invading peoples of Asia. But awaiting the pioneers’ arrival is a stark, empty continent, filled with a plethora of bizarre and lethal animals — all brought to life by brilliant computer animation. The Ice Age Columbus DVD, firmly rooted in the latest scientific discoveries, is a compelling vision of the greatest migration in human history of Europeans returning to the land which once broke off of their own ethnic home lands of Europe.”

Indigenous Stone-age Europeans ‘were the first to set foot on North America’

"Stone-age Europeans were the first to set foot on North America, beating American Indians by some 10,000 years, new archaeological evidence suggests.”
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/9110838/Stone-age-Europeans-were-the-first-to-set-foot-on-North-America.html

Anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists agree the Solutreans (sometimes referred to as ethnic Japhethites) were the first in North America.
Archaeologists and RNA specialists also agree North America broke off of the side of Europe, and that South America broke off of the side of Africa. Essentially:
North America = European.
South America = African.

-The RNA of the plants in North America are related to the RNA plant species found in Europe, not Asia.
-The RNA found in plants in South America are the closest related to RNA in plant life found in Western Africa.
_________________________________

Windover, Florida Bog Mummies (Caucasoid):
http://youtu.be/C2LbIE7juOw

Kennewick Man - Clovis/Solutrean - Haplogroup X:
http://youtu.be/lIkkA8STBDI
-“This fixed the age of the skeleton at approximately 9,300 years (8,400 uncalibrated “radiocarbon years”), not the nineteenth century, as had originally been assumed.[4] After studying the bones, Chatters concluded they belonged to a Caucasoid male about 68 inches (173 cm) tall who had died in his mid fifties.[4]” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennewick_man

WHO GENOCIDED WHOM?

Archaeology Story Of The Century: Europeans Were Original Inhabitants Of Americas
-“New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.

-A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.

-The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity’s spread around the globe.

-Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.”
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html

This one may only be about tools, but evidence is evidence. They are European-style tools that are dated older than the oldest Asiatic artifacts.
Clovis spear and arrowhead technology is developed from Solutrean technology. The oldest human remains found in North America are European.

They cannot be forged steel tools, or copper for that matter, as the European settlements never developed beyond the Stone Age, they were absorbed/suffered genocide by the arriving Asiatics.

Link relating to Sarah Winnemucca (last two pictures above):

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Si-Te-Cah

I’m not convinced about the Solutrean hypothesis, and it doesn’t matter to me that much one way or another. However, it is interesting. Also, standard theory says that humans crossed the ocean to reach Australia even earlier than Solutreans are said to have crossed the Atlantic to reach America, so it isn’t ridiculous. It would be more surprising if no Europeans ever reached America during the stone age.

Neither am I. I’ve abandoned this post because of the lack of any actual data. See this post:
http://arkaimcity.tumblr.com/post/64326752066

Further, ancestral North Europeans and ancestral East Asians had been mixing as far back as 20,000 years ago.


Higher Education and Intelligence:
Top Figure: WORDSUM (a variable in the General Social Survey) scores of those with college educations or higher, and those without college educations. For those without college educations the figures don’t change much, but college graduates seem to be getting duller, on average, because less intelligent people are going to college as the number of college graduates has been increasing.

WORDSUM has a correlation of 0.71 with general intelligence and can explain 50% of the variation of general intelligence.


What’s Wrong with Vocational School?

In engineering and most of the natural sciences, the demarcation between high-school material and college-level material is brutally obvious. If you cannot handle the math, you cannot pass the courses. In the humanities and social sciences, the demarcation is fuzzier. It is possible for someone with an IQ of 100 to sit in the lectures of Economics 1, read the textbook, and write answers in an examination book. But students who cannot follow complex arguments accurately are not really learning economics. They are taking away a mishmash of half-understood information and outright misunderstandings that probably leave them under the illusion that they know something they do not. (A depressing research literature documents one’s inability to recognize one’s own incompetence.) Traditionally and properly understood, a four-year college education teaches advanced analytic skills and information at a level that exceeds the intellectual capacity of most people.
…There is no magic point at which a genuine college-level education becomes an option, but anything below an IQ of 110 is problematic. If you want to do well, you should have an IQ of 115 or higher. Put another way, it makes sense for only about 15% of the population, 25% if one stretches it, to get a college education. And yet more than 45% of recent high school graduates enroll in four-year colleges. Adjust that percentage to account for high-school dropouts, and more than 40% of all persons in their late teens are trying to go to a four-year college—enough people to absorb everyone down through an IQ of 104. … In professions screened for IQ by educational requirements—medicine, engineering, law, the sciences and academia—the great majority of people must, by the nature of the selection process, have IQs over 120. 
… Of the simple truths about intelligence and its relationship to education, this is the most important and least acknowledged: Our future depends crucially on how we educate the next generation of people gifted with unusually high intelligence.How assiduously does our federal government work to see that this precious raw material is properly developed? In 2006, the Department of Education spent about $84 billion. The only program to improve the education of the gifted got $9.6 million, one-hundredth of 1% of expenditures. In the 2007 budget, President Bush zeroed it out.http://www.aei.org/article/society-and-culture/citizenship/whats-wrong-with-vocational-school/

Education and Verbal Ability over Time: Evidence from Three Multi-Time Sources:

Abstract: During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the level of educational attainment in America.… The main finding is that there is little evidence that the large increase in educational attainment has resulted in an increase in any of the measures of verbal abilities and skills.http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/cgi-bin/downloads/Education_SIQSS.pdfhttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

See - the two images above:

… The results from using these three different measures of verbal ability and skills all show the same striking patterns: (1) there is no increase in scores in the overall population over time; (2) as the number of people obtaining a certain level of education increased, the verbal ability of those terminating with that degree has decreased.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

Does Education Really Make You Smarter? (Author’s summary of their above study):

… Our initial hypothesis was that if amount of schooling causally affects any outcome, it would be verbal ability. The vast expansion of the American education system over the course of the 20th century served as our test bed. We expected that the huge increase in educational attainment in the U.S. across the decades would be accompanied by a substantial improvement in verbal abilities. To our initial amazement, we found no evidence for such improvement.Education levels and scores on a vocabulary test given to subjects are indeed correlated (see Figure 1). Over the three-plus decades studied, those with more education got better vocabulary scores, and vice versa.Those results, however, do not necessarily imply that education causes increased verbal ability. If education did increase verbal ability, we would expect increasing levels of education over time to bring about measurably higher levels of verbal ability. During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the levels of educational attainment in the U.S. The average American born between 1910 and 1914 received a bit more than 10 years of education. The average American born between 1970 and 1974 received 14 years of education. In 60 years, the “average American” went from being a high school dropout to having two years of college — a remarkable increase. … But, as Figure 2 shows, even though education has increased considerably through the decades, and even though education is correlated with verbal ability, verbal ability has stayed practically constant over time. The lack of change in the average vocabulary score of Americans, despite the large increase in the population’s average years of schooling, is an intriguing finding.http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-culture/does-education-really-make-you-smarter-4543/

Conclusions:
We can’t think rationally about education policy and proposals to improve education without considering differences in levels of intelligence.
We can’t raise school test scores all that much because kids can’t perform beyond their intellectual capacity.
We send too many people to college since the percentage of those smart enough to master college material is far smaller than the percentage who go to college.
Clearly there is a sharp distinction between certain majors - compare with this figure, which shows that the growth in awarded college degrees over the last several decades has come from people majoring outside the sciences and engineering.
Current goals are unachievable and policies formulated to achieve those goals waste resources.
Related:
Students Are Not Graduating With The Degrees That Pay
Verbal/Mathematical Ability and Career Choice

Higher Education and Intelligence:
Top Figure: WORDSUM (a variable in the General Social Survey) scores of those with college educations or higher, and those without college educations. For those without college educations the figures don’t change much, but college graduates seem to be getting duller, on average, because less intelligent people are going to college as the number of college graduates has been increasing.

WORDSUM has a correlation of 0.71 with general intelligence and can explain 50% of the variation of general intelligence.


What’s Wrong with Vocational School?

In engineering and most of the natural sciences, the demarcation between high-school material and college-level material is brutally obvious. If you cannot handle the math, you cannot pass the courses. In the humanities and social sciences, the demarcation is fuzzier. It is possible for someone with an IQ of 100 to sit in the lectures of Economics 1, read the textbook, and write answers in an examination book. But students who cannot follow complex arguments accurately are not really learning economics. They are taking away a mishmash of half-understood information and outright misunderstandings that probably leave them under the illusion that they know something they do not. (A depressing research literature documents one’s inability to recognize one’s own incompetence.) Traditionally and properly understood, a four-year college education teaches advanced analytic skills and information at a level that exceeds the intellectual capacity of most people.
…There is no magic point at which a genuine college-level education becomes an option, but anything below an IQ of 110 is problematic. If you want to do well, you should have an IQ of 115 or higher. Put another way, it makes sense for only about 15% of the population, 25% if one stretches it, to get a college education. And yet more than 45% of recent high school graduates enroll in four-year colleges. Adjust that percentage to account for high-school dropouts, and more than 40% of all persons in their late teens are trying to go to a four-year college—enough people to absorb everyone down through an IQ of 104. … In professions screened for IQ by educational requirements—medicine, engineering, law, the sciences and academia—the great majority of people must, by the nature of the selection process, have IQs over 120. 
… Of the simple truths about intelligence and its relationship to education, this is the most important and least acknowledged: Our future depends crucially on how we educate the next generation of people gifted with unusually high intelligence.How assiduously does our federal government work to see that this precious raw material is properly developed? In 2006, the Department of Education spent about $84 billion. The only program to improve the education of the gifted got $9.6 million, one-hundredth of 1% of expenditures. In the 2007 budget, President Bush zeroed it out.http://www.aei.org/article/society-and-culture/citizenship/whats-wrong-with-vocational-school/

Education and Verbal Ability over Time: Evidence from Three Multi-Time Sources:

Abstract: During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the level of educational attainment in America.… The main finding is that there is little evidence that the large increase in educational attainment has resulted in an increase in any of the measures of verbal abilities and skills.http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/cgi-bin/downloads/Education_SIQSS.pdfhttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

See - the two images above:

… The results from using these three different measures of verbal ability and skills all show the same striking patterns: (1) there is no increase in scores in the overall population over time; (2) as the number of people obtaining a certain level of education increased, the verbal ability of those terminating with that degree has decreased.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

Does Education Really Make You Smarter? (Author’s summary of their above study):

… Our initial hypothesis was that if amount of schooling causally affects any outcome, it would be verbal ability. The vast expansion of the American education system over the course of the 20th century served as our test bed. We expected that the huge increase in educational attainment in the U.S. across the decades would be accompanied by a substantial improvement in verbal abilities. To our initial amazement, we found no evidence for such improvement.Education levels and scores on a vocabulary test given to subjects are indeed correlated (see Figure 1). Over the three-plus decades studied, those with more education got better vocabulary scores, and vice versa.Those results, however, do not necessarily imply that education causes increased verbal ability. If education did increase verbal ability, we would expect increasing levels of education over time to bring about measurably higher levels of verbal ability. During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the levels of educational attainment in the U.S. The average American born between 1910 and 1914 received a bit more than 10 years of education. The average American born between 1970 and 1974 received 14 years of education. In 60 years, the “average American” went from being a high school dropout to having two years of college — a remarkable increase. … But, as Figure 2 shows, even though education has increased considerably through the decades, and even though education is correlated with verbal ability, verbal ability has stayed practically constant over time. The lack of change in the average vocabulary score of Americans, despite the large increase in the population’s average years of schooling, is an intriguing finding.http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-culture/does-education-really-make-you-smarter-4543/

Conclusions:
We can’t think rationally about education policy and proposals to improve education without considering differences in levels of intelligence.
We can’t raise school test scores all that much because kids can’t perform beyond their intellectual capacity.
We send too many people to college since the percentage of those smart enough to master college material is far smaller than the percentage who go to college.
Clearly there is a sharp distinction between certain majors - compare with this figure, which shows that the growth in awarded college degrees over the last several decades has come from people majoring outside the sciences and engineering.
Current goals are unachievable and policies formulated to achieve those goals waste resources.
Related:
Students Are Not Graduating With The Degrees That Pay
Verbal/Mathematical Ability and Career Choice

Higher Education and Intelligence:
Top Figure: WORDSUM (a variable in the General Social Survey) scores of those with college educations or higher, and those without college educations. For those without college educations the figures don’t change much, but college graduates seem to be getting duller, on average, because less intelligent people are going to college as the number of college graduates has been increasing.

WORDSUM has a correlation of 0.71 with general intelligence and can explain 50% of the variation of general intelligence.


What’s Wrong with Vocational School?

In engineering and most of the natural sciences, the demarcation between high-school material and college-level material is brutally obvious. If you cannot handle the math, you cannot pass the courses. In the humanities and social sciences, the demarcation is fuzzier. It is possible for someone with an IQ of 100 to sit in the lectures of Economics 1, read the textbook, and write answers in an examination book. But students who cannot follow complex arguments accurately are not really learning economics. They are taking away a mishmash of half-understood information and outright misunderstandings that probably leave them under the illusion that they know something they do not. (A depressing research literature documents one’s inability to recognize one’s own incompetence.) Traditionally and properly understood, a four-year college education teaches advanced analytic skills and information at a level that exceeds the intellectual capacity of most people.
…There is no magic point at which a genuine college-level education becomes an option, but anything below an IQ of 110 is problematic. If you want to do well, you should have an IQ of 115 or higher. Put another way, it makes sense for only about 15% of the population, 25% if one stretches it, to get a college education. And yet more than 45% of recent high school graduates enroll in four-year colleges. Adjust that percentage to account for high-school dropouts, and more than 40% of all persons in their late teens are trying to go to a four-year college—enough people to absorb everyone down through an IQ of 104. … In professions screened for IQ by educational requirements—medicine, engineering, law, the sciences and academia—the great majority of people must, by the nature of the selection process, have IQs over 120. 
… Of the simple truths about intelligence and its relationship to education, this is the most important and least acknowledged: Our future depends crucially on how we educate the next generation of people gifted with unusually high intelligence.How assiduously does our federal government work to see that this precious raw material is properly developed? In 2006, the Department of Education spent about $84 billion. The only program to improve the education of the gifted got $9.6 million, one-hundredth of 1% of expenditures. In the 2007 budget, President Bush zeroed it out.http://www.aei.org/article/society-and-culture/citizenship/whats-wrong-with-vocational-school/

Education and Verbal Ability over Time: Evidence from Three Multi-Time Sources:

Abstract: During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the level of educational attainment in America.… The main finding is that there is little evidence that the large increase in educational attainment has resulted in an increase in any of the measures of verbal abilities and skills.http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/cgi-bin/downloads/Education_SIQSS.pdfhttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

See - the two images above:

… The results from using these three different measures of verbal ability and skills all show the same striking patterns: (1) there is no increase in scores in the overall population over time; (2) as the number of people obtaining a certain level of education increased, the verbal ability of those terminating with that degree has decreased.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

Does Education Really Make You Smarter? (Author’s summary of their above study):

… Our initial hypothesis was that if amount of schooling causally affects any outcome, it would be verbal ability. The vast expansion of the American education system over the course of the 20th century served as our test bed. We expected that the huge increase in educational attainment in the U.S. across the decades would be accompanied by a substantial improvement in verbal abilities. To our initial amazement, we found no evidence for such improvement.Education levels and scores on a vocabulary test given to subjects are indeed correlated (see Figure 1). Over the three-plus decades studied, those with more education got better vocabulary scores, and vice versa.Those results, however, do not necessarily imply that education causes increased verbal ability. If education did increase verbal ability, we would expect increasing levels of education over time to bring about measurably higher levels of verbal ability. During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the levels of educational attainment in the U.S. The average American born between 1910 and 1914 received a bit more than 10 years of education. The average American born between 1970 and 1974 received 14 years of education. In 60 years, the “average American” went from being a high school dropout to having two years of college — a remarkable increase. … But, as Figure 2 shows, even though education has increased considerably through the decades, and even though education is correlated with verbal ability, verbal ability has stayed practically constant over time. The lack of change in the average vocabulary score of Americans, despite the large increase in the population’s average years of schooling, is an intriguing finding.http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-culture/does-education-really-make-you-smarter-4543/

Conclusions:
We can’t think rationally about education policy and proposals to improve education without considering differences in levels of intelligence.
We can’t raise school test scores all that much because kids can’t perform beyond their intellectual capacity.
We send too many people to college since the percentage of those smart enough to master college material is far smaller than the percentage who go to college.
Clearly there is a sharp distinction between certain majors - compare with this figure, which shows that the growth in awarded college degrees over the last several decades has come from people majoring outside the sciences and engineering.
Current goals are unachievable and policies formulated to achieve those goals waste resources.
Related:
Students Are Not Graduating With The Degrees That Pay
Verbal/Mathematical Ability and Career Choice
  • Higher Education and Intelligence:

Top Figure: WORDSUM (a variable in the General Social Survey) scores of those with college educations or higher, and those without college educations. For those without college educations the figures don’t change much, but college graduates seem to be getting duller, on average, because less intelligent people are going to college as the number of college graduates has been increasing.

WORDSUM has a correlation of 0.71 with general intelligence and can explain 50% of the variation of general intelligence.

What’s Wrong with Vocational School?

In engineering and most of the natural sciences, the demarcation between high-school material and college-level material is brutally obvious. If you cannot handle the math, you cannot pass the courses. In the humanities and social sciences, the demarcation is fuzzier. It is possible for someone with an IQ of 100 to sit in the lectures of Economics 1, read the textbook, and write answers in an examination book. But students who cannot follow complex arguments accurately are not really learning economics. They are taking away a mishmash of half-understood information and outright misunderstandings that probably leave them under the illusion that they know something they do not. (A depressing research literature documents one’s inability to recognize one’s own incompetence.) Traditionally and properly understood, a four-year college education teaches advanced analytic skills and information at a level that exceeds the intellectual capacity of most people.

…There is no magic point at which a genuine college-level education becomes an option, but anything below an IQ of 110 is problematic. If you want to do well, you should have an IQ of 115 or higher. Put another way, it makes sense for only about 15% of the population, 25% if one stretches it, to get a college education. And yet more than 45% of recent high school graduates enroll in four-year colleges. Adjust that percentage to account for high-school dropouts, and more than 40% of all persons in their late teens are trying to go to a four-year college—enough people to absorb everyone down through an IQ of 104.

In professions screened for IQ by educational requirements—medicine, engineering, law, the sciences and academia—the great majority of people must, by the nature of the selection process, have IQs over 120.

Of the simple truths about intelligence and its relationship to education, this is the most important and least acknowledged: Our future depends crucially on how we educate the next generation of people gifted with unusually high intelligence.

How assiduously does our federal government work to see that this precious raw material is properly developed? In 2006, the Department of Education spent about $84 billion. The only program to improve the education of the gifted got $9.6 million, one-hundredth of 1% of expenditures. In the 2007 budget, President Bush zeroed it out.

http://www.aei.org/article/society-and-culture/citizenship/whats-wrong-with-vocational-school/

Education and Verbal Ability over Time: Evidence from Three Multi-Time Sources:

Abstract: During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the level of educational attainment in America.
The main finding is that there is little evidence that the large increase in educational attainment has resulted in an increase in any of the measures of verbal abilities and skills.
http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/cgi-bin/downloads/Education_SIQSS.pdf
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

See - the two images above:

… The results from using these three different measures of verbal ability and skills all show the same striking patterns: (1) there is no increase in scores in the overall population over time; (2) as the number of people obtaining a certain level of education increased, the verbal ability of those terminating with that degree has decreased.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.214.5711

Does Education Really Make You Smarter? (Author’s summary of their above study):

… Our initial hypothesis was that if amount of schooling causally affects any outcome, it would be verbal ability. The vast expansion of the American education system over the course of the 20th century served as our test bed. We expected that the huge increase in educational attainment in the U.S. across the decades would be accompanied by a substantial improvement in verbal abilities. To our initial amazement, we found no evidence for such improvement.

Education levels and scores on a vocabulary test given to subjects are indeed correlated (see Figure 1). Over the three-plus decades studied, those with more education got better vocabulary scores, and vice versa.

Those results, however, do not necessarily imply that education causes increased verbal ability. If education did increase verbal ability, we would expect increasing levels of education over time to bring about measurably higher levels of verbal ability. During the 20th century, there was an unprecedented expansion in the levels of educational attainment in the U.S. The average American born between 1910 and 1914 received a bit more than 10 years of education. The average American born between 1970 and 1974 received 14 years of education. In 60 years, the “average American” went from being a high school dropout to having two years of college — a remarkable increase.

… But, as Figure 2 shows, even though education has increased considerably through the decades, and even though education is correlated with verbal ability, verbal ability has stayed practically constant over time. The lack of change in the average vocabulary score of Americans, despite the large increase in the population’s average years of schooling, is an intriguing finding.
http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-culture/does-education-really-make-you-smarter-4543/

Conclusions:

  • We can’t think rationally about education policy and proposals to improve education without considering differences in levels of intelligence.
  • We can’t raise school test scores all that much because kids can’t perform beyond their intellectual capacity.
  • We send too many people to college since the percentage of those smart enough to master college material is far smaller than the percentage who go to college.
  • Clearly there is a sharp distinction between certain majors - compare with this figure, which shows that the growth in awarded college degrees over the last several decades has come from people majoring outside the sciences and engineering.
  • Current goals are unachievable and policies formulated to achieve those goals waste resources.

Related:

heksekunst-nord:

holy shit. they’re babies! they like who looks like their family because that is all they know! this research methodology is bullshit.

Well of course, it’s in-group bias - a preference for the same, rather than the other, which is the natural order. It’s striking that these biases in face recognition and perception begin in preverbal infants, well before concepts about race are formed.

Clearly, there’s only so much you can infer from studies that involve babies, where any conclusions gathered may seem trivial to begin with. But this develops, the human brain makes unconscious decisions based on race, and more generally empathy for in-group members is neurally distinct from empathy for humankind.

Indeed, racism in diverse societies will be an infinitely persisting condition, whereas anti-racism is a social construct.

By specifically making this about WHITE babies being racist the daily mail are just doing what they do best.

European Looking Populations Were Extant in Southern Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages:
Pigment phenotype and biogeographical ancestry from ancient skeletal remains: inferences from multiplexed autosomal SNP analysis:

In the present study, a multiplexed genotyping assay for ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within six pigmentation candidate genes was developed on modern biological samples and applied to DNA retrieved from 25 archeological human remains from southern central Siberia dating from the Bronze and Iron Ages. SNP genotyping was successful for the majority of ancient samples and revealed that most probably had typical European pigment features, i.e., blue or green eye color, light hair color and skin type, and were likely of European individual ancestry. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the multiplexed typing of autosomal SNPs on aged and degraded DNA.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19415315

Specifically, the Krasnoyarsk (region of Siberia) samples are from the Andronovo culture.
Image Above: aDNA = ancient (from Krasnoyarsk) DNA. The ancient samples span the Bronze Age to the 4th century A.D. Note how they’re clearly close to European populations, but there is already some admixture with groups of East Asian origin. See: Ancient Europeans of China.
Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people:

To help unravel some of the early Eurasian steppe migration movements, we determined the Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area dated from between the middle of the second millennium BC. to the fourth century AD. Our results also confirm that at the Bronze and Iron Ages, south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly predominant European settlement, suggesting an eastward migration of Kurgan people across the Russo-Kazakh steppe. Finally, our data indicate that at the Bronze and Iron Age timeframe, south Siberians were blue (or green)-eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people and that they might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization. To the best of our knowledge, no equivalent molecular analysis has been undertaken so far.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19449030Full text: http://www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/keyser_2009_e.pdf

Even in the Bronze Age the Eurasian steppe was connected by peoples with close relationships, cultural and genetic, from Siberia to the Black Sea. Important data to consider in theories that are used to explain the distribution of modern language families.
Kurgan Hypothesis:

Historical records and archaeology attest that nomadic groups moved across Eurasia from North of the Black sea, through Central and Inner Asia, to northeast Asia in a matter of centuries (Mair 2005). Some of them are described in Chinese historiography as horse-riding, Caucasian-looking, Indo-European-speaking people and are sometimes referred as the “Kurgan Culture” (Zerjal et al. 2002).
…. According to the “Kurgan hypothesis” of Marija Gimbutas, nomadic peoples of the Volga steppe region, assumed to speak a Proto-Indo-European language, infiltrated Europe in three waves between 4400 and 2800 BC. Around 4400 BC, Kurgan people from the lower Dnieper and lower Volga regions began moving along the Black Sea littoral into the Danube Basin. They migrated in the Central Balkans and further into Central Europe. During the middle of the fourth millennium BC, the Kurgan culture in the North Pontic Region continued to develop. People travelled across western Ukraine north of the Carpathian Mountains to Poland and Central Germany. They also moved southwest into eastern Romania. Shortly after 3000 BC, the third Kurgan wave (Yamna people), originating once more from the Volga steppe, spread from Central Europe to Northwest Germany, the east Baltic area, southern Scandinavia, the upper Dnieper basin and Central Russia.http://www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/keyser_2009_e.pdf

The easiest way to summarise the Kurgan hypothesis is that Indo-European speakers invaded Europe, and various regions of Asia, in large enough numbers to leave a genetic, cultural and linguistic impact in those invaded regions, as they themselves were eventually absorbed into the indigenous populations.

Another conclusion that can tentatively be inferred from the data presented here is that the Andronovo culture might be the eastern spread of the Kurgan culture and might be related to Tocharian speakers in the Tarim Basin.To conclude, in this work we demonstrated that some carriers of the Kurgan culture, believed to be Indo-European speakers, were also carriers of the R1a1 haplogroup. These data lend further support to the idea that R1a1 might be a marker to the migration patterns of the early Indo-Europeans, an idea also supported by the recent article of Haak et al. (2008) in which individuals of the Corded Ware Culture, a culture commonly associated with Indo-European, might bore R1a1 Y-chromosome (as we deduced from their Y-STR typing results).http://www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/keyser_2009_e.pdf

Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians:

This study helps to clarify the debate on the Western and Eastern genetic influences in Central Asia. The distribution of east and west Eurasian lineages through time in the region is concordant with the available archaeological information: prior to the thirteenth-seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belong to European lineages; while later an arrival of east Eurasian sequences that coexisted with the previous west Eurasian genetic substratum can be detected. The presence of an ancient genetic substratum of European origin in West Asia may be related to the discovery of ancient mummies with European features in Xinjiangand to the existence of an extinct Indo-European language, Tocharian. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the ancient DNA in unravelling complex patterns of past human migrations so as to help decipher the origin of present-day admixed populations.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691686/

Essentially, during the Bronze/Iron Age period, the majority of the population of Kazakhstan (part of the Andronovo culture during Bronze Age), was of west Eurasian origin and that prior to the thirteenth to seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belonged to European lineages.
  • European Looking Populations Were Extant in Southern Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages:

Pigment phenotype and biogeographical ancestry from ancient skeletal remains: inferences from multiplexed autosomal SNP analysis:

In the present study, a multiplexed genotyping assay for ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within six pigmentation candidate genes was developed on modern biological samples and applied to DNA retrieved from 25 archeological human remains from southern central Siberia dating from the Bronze and Iron Ages. SNP genotyping was successful for the majority of ancient samples and revealed that most probably had typical European pigment features, i.e., blue or green eye color, light hair color and skin type, and were likely of European individual ancestry. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time the multiplexed typing of autosomal SNPs on aged and degraded DNA.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19415315

Specifically, the Krasnoyarsk (region of Siberia) samples are from the Andronovo culture.

Image Above: aDNA = ancient (from Krasnoyarsk) DNA. The ancient samples span the Bronze Age to the 4th century A.D. Note how they’re clearly close to European populations, but there is already some admixture with groups of East Asian origin. See: Ancient Europeans of China.

Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people:

To help unravel some of the early Eurasian steppe migration movements, we determined the Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area dated from between the middle of the second millennium BC. to the fourth century AD. Our results also confirm that at the Bronze and Iron Ages, south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly predominant European settlement, suggesting an eastward migration of Kurgan people across the Russo-Kazakh steppe. Finally, our data indicate that at the Bronze and Iron Age timeframe, south Siberians were blue (or green)-eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people and that they might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization. To the best of our knowledge, no equivalent molecular analysis has been undertaken so far.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19449030
Full text: http://www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/keyser_2009_e.pdf

Even in the Bronze Age the Eurasian steppe was connected by peoples with close relationships, cultural and genetic, from Siberia to the Black Sea. Important data to consider in theories that are used to explain the distribution of modern language families.

Kurgan Hypothesis:

Historical records and archaeology attest that nomadic groups moved across Eurasia from North of the Black sea, through Central and Inner Asia, to northeast Asia in a matter of centuries (Mair 2005). Some of them are described in Chinese historiography as horse-riding, Caucasian-looking, Indo-European-speaking people and are sometimes referred as the “Kurgan Culture” (Zerjal et al. 2002).

…. According to the “Kurgan hypothesis” of Marija Gimbutas, nomadic peoples of the Volga steppe region, assumed to speak a Proto-Indo-European language, infiltrated Europe in three waves between 4400 and 2800 BC. Around 4400 BC, Kurgan people from the lower Dnieper and lower Volga regions began moving along the Black Sea littoral into the Danube Basin. They migrated in the Central Balkans and further into Central Europe. During the middle of the fourth millennium BC, the Kurgan culture in the North Pontic Region continued to develop. People travelled across western Ukraine north of the Carpathian Mountains to Poland and Central Germany. They also moved southwest into eastern Romania. Shortly after 3000 BC, the third Kurgan wave (Yamna people), originating once more from the Volga steppe, spread from Central Europe to Northwest Germany, the east Baltic area, southern Scandinavia, the upper Dnieper basin and Central Russia.
http://www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/keyser_2009_e.pdf

The easiest way to summarise the Kurgan hypothesis is that Indo-European speakers invaded Europe, and various regions of Asia, in large enough numbers to leave a genetic, cultural and linguistic impact in those invaded regions, as they themselves were eventually absorbed into the indigenous populations.

Another conclusion that can tentatively be inferred from the data presented here is that the Andronovo culture might be the eastern spread of the Kurgan culture and might be related to Tocharian speakers in the Tarim Basin.

To conclude, in this work we demonstrated that some carriers of the Kurgan culture, believed to be Indo-European speakers, were also carriers of the R1a1 haplogroup. These data lend further support to the idea that R1a1 might be a marker to the migration patterns of the early Indo-Europeans, an idea also supported by the recent article of Haak et al. (2008) in which individuals of the Corded Ware Culture, a culture commonly associated with Indo-European, might bore R1a1 Y-chromosome (as we deduced from their Y-STR typing results).
http://www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/keyser_2009_e.pdf

Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians:

This study helps to clarify the debate on the Western and Eastern genetic influences in Central Asia. The distribution of east and west Eurasian lineages through time in the region is concordant with the available archaeological information: prior to the thirteenth-seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belong to European lineages; while later an arrival of east Eurasian sequences that coexisted with the previous west Eurasian genetic substratum can be detected. The presence of an ancient genetic substratum of European origin in West Asia may be related to the discovery of ancient mummies with European features in Xinjiangand to the existence of an extinct Indo-European language, Tocharian. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the ancient DNA in unravelling complex patterns of past human migrations so as to help decipher the origin of present-day admixed populations.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691686/

Essentially, during the Bronze/Iron Age period, the majority of the population of Kazakhstan (part of the Andronovo culture during Bronze Age), was of west Eurasian origin and that prior to the thirteenth to seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belonged to European lineages.

Q

Anonymous asked:

the idea that a person can only be male or female is instantly debunked by the fact that people with both sets of sexual organs exist. it is uncommon, but so what? it proves that human biology isn't just a black and white "male" or "female" thing. The fact that there are more than just XX and XY chromosomes should be enough to prove that there are variations in human biology.

A

eftrom:

First of all, only one of their genitals works.

Second, mutations don’t warrant acknowledgment in this and similar cases. Humans have ten fingers and ten toes, right? That’s an attribute of humans. But some humans have 11 fingers or 9 fingers or 12 fingers. So does that mean in anatomy books, when describing attributes of humans, and they get to the fingers part, they should say, “Humans have anywhere from 9 to 12 fingers.” And some have one arm, some have three. “Humans have anywhere from 1 arm to 3.” No, three arms are not an attribute of humans, even though some have three. Likewise, there being a few people with penises and vaginas (only one of which works) doesn’t mean multiple genitalia is an attribute of humans. “Humans have anywhere from one to three types of genitalia.” No anatomy book would ever describe humans like that because mutations of humans are not attributes of humans.

When XX and XY both make up 49.9% of the population, it would be wise to assume that those are the standard and healthy chromosome variations. If you look at the process of meiosis, you’d see that XXY, XYY and the like can only be the result of a flaw in chromosome configuration. If you’d call these genotypes ‘natural’ then you’d have to call people with Trisomy 21 healthy too. After all, it occurs due to the same meiotic error that causes sexual chromosome diseases.

It’s a false comparison. One gene is not much, but an entire chromome is a gigantic genetic gap. Polyploidy of only certain chromosomes actually produce viable offspring, but most end in miscarriage or the foetus just dies.

Also, X and Y don’t code just for sexual orientation. There are many other molecular biological fields that they influence. These too can be jeopardized by polyploidic sexual chromosomes.

Chromosome diseases are the worst genetic diseases there are.

Playing around the the data from the U.S General Social Survey. Going off the chart above, when controlling the data for sex:

  • Less educated women consistently have more children across all political persuasions:

It’s more likely that there are just simply more unplanned births among the less educated, but the replacement ratio is significant.

  • Liberal attitudes among women appear to correlate with a weaker desire for children:

The mean number of children (across all education levels) for those identifying as slightly, conservative and extremely conservative is 2.3 (above replacement). As opposed to 1.7 (below) for liberals.

  • Educated liberal women are having considerably less children, or are just abstaining completely:

The mean birthrate for the most educated (bachelor and graduate) liberal women is just 1.2.

  • As a total, women who identify as moderate, slightly, conservative and extremely conservative are the only ones with replacement rates:

2.14, 2.08, 2.28, and 2.58 (extremely con.) respectively. The birthrate for those identifying as extremely liberal (across all education levels) was just 1.71.

The sample size for those who answered all the above questions came to 45,803.

  • For men the data wasn’t much different:

Men identifying as conservative and extremely conservative had higher than average birthrates across all education levels (aside from conservative-identifying, junior college men).

  • For all cases combined (male and female) only those  individuals identifying as moderate-extremely conservative had higher than average birthrates:

When the data is controlled for race (to include just whites) there isn’t a drastic difference because the non-white sample size was much lower, giving a less than proportionate representation across the spread anyway:

  • Re-ran the data with those identifying as religious and non-religious (instead of education level) for all cases (male and female) combined:

This yields a large distinction between the birthrates of religious and non-religious individuals.

  • For women alone, those who identified as extremely conservative had above replacement levels whether religious or not:

The sample size for those who answered all of the above questions (with the religious variable) for the specified criteria was considerably smaller, at just 8,107, but is still more than enough to be considered a reasonable representation.

Related:

Bulgarians Midway Between Slavs and Mediterraneans


Bulgarians vs the other European populations: a mitochondrial DNA perspective

The observed pattern of mtDNA variation indicates that the Bulgarian mitochondrial pool is geographically homogeneous across the country, and that is characterized by an overall extremely high frequency of western Eurasian lineages. In the principal component analysis, Bulgarians locate in an intermediate position between Eastern European and Mediterranean populations, which is in agreement with historical events. Thus, while the Mediterranean legacy could be attributed to the Thracians, indigenous people that firstly inhabited the Balkans, the Eastern contribution is likely due to the Proto-Bulgarians originating from the Middle East and to the Slavs migrating from northeast Europe.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21674295

They used 855 Bulgarians, including people from the country’s Islamic population, who didn’t show any Turkic connection, contrary to theories that Bulgarians are simply a people of Turkic origin.

According to the study, Croatians, Poles, Ukrainians and other Slavs are closest to Bulgarians, but Bulgarians are a "peculiar" type of Slav, since they also have Mediterranean genes, which they’ve linked to their contacts with ancient Thracians (Indo-European tribes in Central and Southeastern Europe).

The Bulgarian ethnicity was formed through the mixing of the non-Turkic Bulgars with the local population made up of Slavs and some Thracians.

Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry:

Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements.

On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible.

… In addition, an important consideration arises from the finding that haplogroups C-M217, N-M231 and Q-M242, which are common in Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations [40], [41], occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5% in modern Bulgarians. This observation is in agreement with the results of recent linguistic studies which demonstrated that the proto-Bulgarian language does not belong to the Turkic family but it relates to the Indo-European languages of the East Iranian group, whose traces still persist in the modern Bulgarian language, despite its Slavic basis.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0056779