• Archaic Admixture in Modern Humans - Continued

The original Out-of-Africa theory posited a single origin population with zero admixture occurring between archaic and modern populations, because biologically they apparently couldn’t. In fact, modern humans picked up archaic admixture as they spread out of Africa and into Eurasia. Modern Eurasians have 1-4% Neanderthal admixture, and Melanesians have an additional 4-6% from the Denisovans:

Denisova Admixture and the First Modern Human Dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania:

… Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a “Negrito” group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. 

Modern sub-Saharan Africans appear to be the most archaic-influenced of all modern humans. About 2% of their gene pool comes from a now-extinct member of the Homo genus that broke away from the modern human lineage around 700,000 years ago. This implies that archaic admixture in modern sub-Saharan African populations extends beyond the H. heidelbergensis clade, which is ancestral to modern humans and Neanderthals, and may encompass late H. erectus populations (expanded on in this post):

Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa:

… contemporary African populations contain a small proportion of genetic material (≈2%) that introgressed ≈35 kya from an archaic population that split from the ancestors of anatomically modern humans ≈700 kya. Taken together our results suggest that polymorphisms present in extant populations introgressed via relatively recent interbreeding with hominin forms that diverged from the ancestors of modern humans in the Lower-Middle Pleistocene.

A further 13% of archaic admixture in sub-Saharan Africans comes from a population that may be related to the Skhul-Qafzeh (dated to 120,000 – 80,000 BP) early (anatomically) modern humans of the Levant.

The original Out-of-Africa theory also posited that modern humans simply replaced archaic populations, but this did not happen, at least not everywhere. In western and southern Africa, the remains of the archaic populations that contributed to the genome of African populations lived into the later stone age, some ~13,000 years ago. Around the time when farming had begun in the Middle-East:

The Later Stone Age Calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: Morphology and Chronology

Similarly, remains of early modern humans from southwest China date to date to ~14.5-11.5 thousand years ago (the image of this post is a reconstruction of the remains found in China):

Human Remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition of Southwest China Suggest a Complex Evolutionary History for East Asians:

The fossils are of a people with a highly unusual mix of archaic and modern anatomical features and are the youngest of their kind ever found in mainland East Asia. Dated to just 14,500 to 11,500 years old, these people would have shared the landscape with modern-looking people at a time when China’s earliest farming cultures were beginning,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120314124007.htm

This "unusual mix" is likely reminiscent of the Skhul-Qafzeh "almost modern” humans found in the Levant. Also similar to the early modern human populations which were found in North Africa:

Curnoe et al., 2012: Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia

As the prior study observed, there is archaic material present in living Africans, but DNA rapidly degrades in tropical climates so they may never retrieve DNA from the aforementioned archaic skulls of North Africa.

Authors of the study also note that a population candidate for the archaic Chinese remains could be the Denisovans, the population which contributes to the genome of Melanesians and which inhabited East Asia (as well as Siberia and tropical Asia at large) around the time that Neanderthals inhabited Europe and central Asia:

Curnoe et al., 2012: DNA extracted from a >50 ka hominin fossil from Denisova Cave in Central Asia belonging within the Neandertal lineage shares features exclusively with Aboriginal Southeast Asians and Australasians. This has been interpreted as: 1) evidence for interbreeding between the ‘Denisovans’ and the earliest modern humans to colonise the region; and 2) implying occupation of Southeast Asia by this archaic population during the Upper Pleistocene.

Previous post:

Q

Anonymous asked:

Those articles don't debunk the Out of Africa theory, though. Most say that humans migrated out of africa than previously thought and others are based on opinions that provide no evidence. The rest are based on fossils such as teeth that probably belonged to neanderthals. Seriously, I like you, but read your shit before posting it please.

A

logicd:

OoA theory is just a theory and its on its own shaky ground on old “evidence” the original creator doesnt even stand by anymore. The point of the links is to show all the holes and discrepancies  of the original theory. I suggest you go through each and actually read everything. There is like 50 links. The point in case you missed it is theories are just that and no one really knows anything and hailing it as something solid and definite is pretty ignorant.

Literally worse than folks who reply to something after a few minutes pretending they read everything.

Most data supports a largely African origin of the modern human genome, whereas completely independent evolution is still quite a radical theory.

The original Out-of-Africa model posited a single origin population with zero admixture occurring between archaic and modern populations, because biologically they apparently couldn’t. So as soon as archaic admixture in all modern humans was discovered, the old theory was destroyed there and then. Although the alternate multiregional theory posited that admixture can and did occur with archaic populations, which was correct, but the classical multiregional theory also posited a single interbreeding species within the Homo genus throughout its history, which then spawned multiple regional populations - not merely that admixture with local archaic populations occurred. Both theories need to be revised.

In terms of independent evolution (à la multiregionalism) it should be known that those short Pygmies of Africa differ more from the Mandenka people (West Africans) than Eurasians do from the same West Africans. Such genetic differentiation among African populations was as likely ~50,000 years ago. The leaky replacement/multiple archaic populations theory posits that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa and that they further diverged accordingly on their trek out of Africa. This holds up well, but with the current data we’re not quite in multiregional territory yet.

Also, every single one of those links in the pastebin were either press releases or coverage by media tabloids, not links to any actual papers. You’ll find inaccuracies and slight misrepresentation of data even on reputable sites like ScienceDaily, which is why I never post any summaries from press releases without the actual data to verify.

I too used to spam around a collection of links that I put together to "debunk the Out-of-Africa" years ago and I sometimes see the same links, complete with spelling mistakes and dead links, posted here and elsewhere. Spamming links without any real interpretation of the data, or clear comprehension of what is being posted, is all too common now.

our-unpopularopinions:

It’s a horrible thing to say but that’s why I’m here.  We give and give to people who will never be able to give back to their society.  They’re bottom-less pits of sympathy and money and I don’t mean to say “let’s go kill all the retards,” I’m just saying we need to try harder to destroy mental incapacity.  We could abort fetuses threatened with mental illness or try to discover cures for ones that may go undetected and treat victims at a young age.  

You don’t need to abort them. Genomics has advanced to the point where we can perform full genotype sequencing from just 10-20 cells. We are already close to the stage where non-destructive sequencing of human gametes and zygotes can be performed. Medical technology will advance to the point that maladies (such as those discussed here) can be fixed by genetic re-engineering at the zygotic stage. Essentially, this would allow parents the potential to genotype fertilised eggs before deciding which to implant.
Being pro-life and pro-eugenics is not incompatible. A sort of case point of this is here.

our-unpopularopinions:

It’s a horrible thing to say but that’s why I’m here.  We give and give to people who will never be able to give back to their society.  They’re bottom-less pits of sympathy and money and I don’t mean to say “let’s go kill all the retards,” I’m just saying we need to try harder to destroy mental incapacity.  We could abort fetuses threatened with mental illness or try to discover cures for ones that may go undetected and treat victims at a young age.  

You don’t need to abort them. Genomics has advanced to the point where we can perform full genotype sequencing from just 10-20 cells. We are already close to the stage where non-destructive sequencing of human gametes and zygotes can be performed. Medical technology will advance to the point that maladies (such as those discussed here) can be fixed by genetic re-engineering at the zygotic stage. Essentially, this would allow parents the potential to genotype fertilised eggs before deciding which to implant.

Being pro-life and pro-eugenics is not incompatible. A sort of case point of this is here.

(via alternaterealitygame)

The past 50,000 years have required humans adapt to a wide range of environments from the Tropics to the Arctic. Such diverse habitats look to have individually influenced the direction and intensity of selection and its resulting human geographic variation. This paper observes that polygyny was much more widespread in sub-Saharan populations than elsewhere. Some explanations (and implications) for this are discussed:

Frost: Polygamy - if one sex is more polygamous than the other, its members will face stronger competition for mates, since fewer of the other sex remain unmated. Polygamy usually means polygyny (one male with more than one mate). This is so because males are often unneeded during pregnancy and infant care. In such cases, they best serve their reproductive interests by returning to the mate market, with the result that too many males will be competing for too few females at any one time. Thus, sexual selection tends to be about males competing with males for females. This tendency is elevated to biological law by Naomi Wolf, author of The Beauty Myth: "for women to compete with women through ‘beauty’ is a reversal of the way in which natural selection affects all other mammals" (Wolf, 1990, p. 3). She points to indigenous peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Australia, and New Guinea as proof that the original human state was one of males vying for the attention of females.

This phenomenon, of females competing with females as the exception in mammals, should be of interest considering new research that pushes the date of light skin in humans back several thousand years: Anthropologist Peter Frost (also the author of the above study) posits that (also here) in a reversal of sexual selection pressures in mammals, females competed with females for mates and male-driven (rather than female driven) selection acted on an overall visual effect that corresponded to variation in intensity for certain traits, often highly visible and colourful ones such as lighter skin, hair and eyes. The early modern women of Europe appear to have evolved these traits to retain male attention and make them stand out from female rivals at a time of fierce competition for scarce males, who had died hunting in cold, harsh climates:

Frost: Incidence of polygyny: This second determinant of sexual selection likewise varies by latitude among hunter-gatherers. The longer the winter, the more it costs a man to provision a second wife and her children, since women cannot gather food in winter and depend more on men for provisioning (Frost, 2006; Kelly, 1995, pp. 262-270; Hoffecker, 2002, p. 8; Martin, 1974, pp. 16-18). In the Arctic, where women have almost no opportunities for gathering, only the ablest hunter can provide for a second wife (Kjellström, 1973, p. 118). … In non-African societies in which polygyny is, or was, socially permissible, only a relatively small fraction of the population is in polygynous marriages. Chamie’s (1986) analysis of data for Arab Muslim countries between the 1950s and 1980s shows that only 5 to 12 percent of men in these countries have more than one wife. Smith and Kunz (1976) report that less than 10 percent of nineteenth-century American Mormon husbands were polygynists. By contrast, throughout most of southern West Africa and western Central Africa, as many as 20 to 50 percent of married men have more than one wife.

One implication here is that among primate species it is found that the largest relative brain sizes are associated with monogamous mating systems:

Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Brain Size in Primates:

The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. … Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order. There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1762360/

Table 1 (above) shows that mating system is significantly associated with brain size in primates after accounting for body mass, while female promiscuity was not. Male competition for access to fertile females, however, was significantly associated with decreasing relative brain size.

Related:


Sex Differences and the STEM Fields

Sex differences on g and non-g intellectual performance reveal potential sources of STEM discrepancies:

The analysis of sex differences in cognitive abilities is largely confusing because these differences are masked by the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g). In this study a battery of five reasoning tests (abstract [AR], numerical [NR], verbal [VR],  mechanical [MR], and spatial [SR]) was completed by a sample of 3233 young and old adolescents representative of the population. … Results show that the difference, favoring boys in latent g increases with age from two to four IQ points. Further, boys outperform girls in all the subtests and the observed differences were generally explained by g. However, mechanical reasoning is a systematic and strong exception to this finding. For the young adolescents, the observed difference in MR is equivalent to 10 IQ points, and this difference increases to 13 IQ points for the old adolescents. Only 1 (young) or 2 (old) IQ points of the sex difference in MR can be accounted for by g. The findings suggest that the persistent – and usually neglected average large advantage of boys in mechanical reasoning (MR) — orthogonal to g – might be behind their higher presence in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) disciplines. A new look at this relevant social issue is proposed in this study.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289612001225Full: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7DMQCP3v6SZQUw1MnNWbXBUV3M/edit?pli=1

To help understand sex differences in the STEM fields, this study found that (see Table 1 above):
Average sex differences in specific cognitive abilities were largely dependent on the variance accounted for by the general factor of intelligence (g). The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals’ standing on the g factor. The difference favouring boys increases across adolescence up to 4 IQ points.
Young boys showed a 10 point IQ advantage in mechanical reasoning (MR) irrespective of latent g (and a 13 point advantage in old adolescence). Average difference favouring boys for the numerical reasoning (NR) subtests (6.4 IQ points) is only partly accounted for by g. Such advantages may help to understand sex discrepancies in STEM disciplines.
Boys and girls mature at different rates, consistent with previous findings, such as Lynn’s developmental theory. The growth of girls accelerates at the age of about 9 years and remains in advance of boys until 14–15 years. At 15–16 years the growth of girls decelerates relatively to that of boys, who continue to grow. Findings are consistent with developmental IQ data from Britain, the United States of America, and Spain.
Non-cognitive variables, such as personality or vocational interests, might also be related to these sex differences. Past studies have found major differences in personality profiles (including work preferences) of males and females. In fact, even holding the level of education constant, measures of personality traits have significant effects on earnings. Similarly, IQ is rewarded in the labour market independently of education [here]. Such factors (personality) may also help explain female underrepresentation in leadership positions.
Although, this study suggests that male advantage in collective adult IQ may be due to sample restriction of the lowest IQ males in most studies. It finds asymmetries in the tails of the ability distribution — many more males than females are distributed at both low and high IQ ends. It suggests those who show intellectual impairment (more likely to be males) may be being disregarded in IQ tests.
A 6 point difference favouring males in numerical reasoning appears consistent with results from this study of a nationally representative study of 5-11 year-old school children. It observes asymmetry in male mathematical performance at the beginning of preschool — before formal schooling has begun. Although by 8-9 years-old boys are outperforming throughout the distribution whilst maintaining their larger advantage at the high end of the mathematical performance distribution.
Clearly, to understand female underrepresentation in specific occupations there must first be awareness that differentiation between boys and girls occurs as early as preschool, and probably earlier. Equally, questioning girls’ decisions about course enrolment is not a suitable measure to take, as sex differences emerge before students are even allowed to make such decisions.

Previous post:
Sex Differences in the Structural Connectome of the Human Brain

Sex Differences and the STEM Fields

Sex differences on g and non-g intellectual performance reveal potential sources of STEM discrepancies:

The analysis of sex differences in cognitive abilities is largely confusing because these differences are masked by the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g). In this study a battery of five reasoning tests (abstract [AR], numerical [NR], verbal [VR],  mechanical [MR], and spatial [SR]) was completed by a sample of 3233 young and old adolescents representative of the population. … Results show that the difference, favoring boys in latent g increases with age from two to four IQ points. Further, boys outperform girls in all the subtests and the observed differences were generally explained by g. However, mechanical reasoning is a systematic and strong exception to this finding. For the young adolescents, the observed difference in MR is equivalent to 10 IQ points, and this difference increases to 13 IQ points for the old adolescents. Only 1 (young) or 2 (old) IQ points of the sex difference in MR can be accounted for by g. The findings suggest that the persistent – and usually neglected average large advantage of boys in mechanical reasoning (MR) — orthogonal to g – might be behind their higher presence in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) disciplines. A new look at this relevant social issue is proposed in this study.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289612001225Full: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7DMQCP3v6SZQUw1MnNWbXBUV3M/edit?pli=1

To help understand sex differences in the STEM fields, this study found that (see Table 1 above):
Average sex differences in specific cognitive abilities were largely dependent on the variance accounted for by the general factor of intelligence (g). The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals’ standing on the g factor. The difference favouring boys increases across adolescence up to 4 IQ points.
Young boys showed a 10 point IQ advantage in mechanical reasoning (MR) irrespective of latent g (and a 13 point advantage in old adolescence). Average difference favouring boys for the numerical reasoning (NR) subtests (6.4 IQ points) is only partly accounted for by g. Such advantages may help to understand sex discrepancies in STEM disciplines.
Boys and girls mature at different rates, consistent with previous findings, such as Lynn’s developmental theory. The growth of girls accelerates at the age of about 9 years and remains in advance of boys until 14–15 years. At 15–16 years the growth of girls decelerates relatively to that of boys, who continue to grow. Findings are consistent with developmental IQ data from Britain, the United States of America, and Spain.
Non-cognitive variables, such as personality or vocational interests, might also be related to these sex differences. Past studies have found major differences in personality profiles (including work preferences) of males and females. In fact, even holding the level of education constant, measures of personality traits have significant effects on earnings. Similarly, IQ is rewarded in the labour market independently of education [here]. Such factors (personality) may also help explain female underrepresentation in leadership positions.
Although, this study suggests that male advantage in collective adult IQ may be due to sample restriction of the lowest IQ males in most studies. It finds asymmetries in the tails of the ability distribution — many more males than females are distributed at both low and high IQ ends. It suggests those who show intellectual impairment (more likely to be males) may be being disregarded in IQ tests.
A 6 point difference favouring males in numerical reasoning appears consistent with results from this study of a nationally representative study of 5-11 year-old school children. It observes asymmetry in male mathematical performance at the beginning of preschool — before formal schooling has begun. Although by 8-9 years-old boys are outperforming throughout the distribution whilst maintaining their larger advantage at the high end of the mathematical performance distribution.
Clearly, to understand female underrepresentation in specific occupations there must first be awareness that differentiation between boys and girls occurs as early as preschool, and probably earlier. Equally, questioning girls’ decisions about course enrolment is not a suitable measure to take, as sex differences emerge before students are even allowed to make such decisions.

Previous post:
Sex Differences in the Structural Connectome of the Human Brain

Sex differences on g and non-g intellectual performance reveal potential sources of STEM discrepancies:

The analysis of sex differences in cognitive abilities is largely confusing because these differences are masked by the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g). In this study a battery of five reasoning tests (abstract [AR], numerical [NR], verbal [VR],  mechanical [MR], and spatial [SR]) was completed by a sample of 3233 young and old adolescents representative of the population. … Results show that the difference, favoring boys in latent g increases with age from two to four IQ points. Further, boys outperform girls in all the subtests and the observed differences were generally explained by g. However, mechanical reasoning is a systematic and strong exception to this finding. For the young adolescents, the observed difference in MR is equivalent to 10 IQ points, and this difference increases to 13 IQ points for the old adolescents. Only 1 (young) or 2 (old) IQ points of the sex difference in MR can be accounted for by g. The findings suggest that the persistent – and usually neglected average large advantage of boys in mechanical reasoning (MR) — orthogonal to g – might be behind their higher presence in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) disciplines. A new look at this relevant social issue is proposed in this study.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289612001225
Full: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7DMQCP3v6SZQUw1MnNWbXBUV3M/edit?pli=1

To help understand sex differences in the STEM fields, this study found that (see Table 1 above):

  • Average sex differences in specific cognitive abilities were largely dependent on the variance accounted for by the general factor of intelligence (g). The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals’ standing on the g factor. The difference favouring boys increases across adolescence up to 4 IQ points.
  • Young boys showed a 10 point IQ advantage in mechanical reasoning (MR) irrespective of latent g (and a 13 point advantage in old adolescence). Average difference favouring boys for the numerical reasoning (NR) subtests (6.4 IQ points) is only partly accounted for by g. Such advantages may help to understand sex discrepancies in STEM disciplines.
  • Boys and girls mature at different rates, consistent with previous findings, such as Lynn’s developmental theory. The growth of girls accelerates at the age of about 9 years and remains in advance of boys until 14–15 years. At 15–16 years the growth of girls decelerates relatively to that of boys, who continue to grow. Findings are consistent with developmental IQ data from Britain, the United States of America, and Spain.
  • Non-cognitive variables, such as personality or vocational interests, might also be related to these sex differences. Past studies have found major differences in personality profiles (including work preferences) of males and females. In fact, even holding the level of education constant, measures of personality traits have significant effects on earnings. Similarly, IQ is rewarded in the labour market independently of education [here]. Such factors (personality) may also help explain female underrepresentation in leadership positions.

Although, this study suggests that male advantage in collective adult IQ may be due to sample restriction of the lowest IQ males in most studies. It finds asymmetries in the tails of the ability distribution — many more males than females are distributed at both low and high IQ ends. It suggests those who show intellectual impairment (more likely to be males) may be being disregarded in IQ tests.

A 6 point difference favouring males in numerical reasoning appears consistent with results from this study of a nationally representative study of 5-11 year-old school children. It observes asymmetry in male mathematical performance at the beginning of preschool — before formal schooling has begun. Although by 8-9 years-old boys are outperforming throughout the distribution whilst maintaining their larger advantage at the high end of the mathematical performance distribution.

Clearly, to understand female underrepresentation in specific occupations there must first be awareness that differentiation between boys and girls occurs as early as preschool, and probably earlier. Equally, questioning girls’ decisions about course enrolment is not a suitable measure to take, as sex differences emerge before students are even allowed to make such decisions.

Previous post:

  • Prehistoric Population Density of Europe

Nature: Regional population collapse followed initial agriculture booms in mid-Holocene Europe:

The first image shows population density change in central and western Europe. The first large population boom arose with the spread of agriculture from its initial arrival in SE Europe around 8,500 BP, followed by separate agricultural expansions into Central Europe 7,500 BP and NW Europe 6,000 BP. A large, long-lasting population decline (on the scale of that caused by the Black Death) is then observed around 5,500 years ago and this doesn’t look to be caused by climate:

We report these results for Central and Northwest Europe between 8,000 and 4,000cal. BP and investigate the relationship between these patterns and climate. However, we find no evidence to support a relationship.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131001/ncomms3486/full/ncomms3486.html

This image shows the population density for all regions combined. This image is a map of the sampled regions in Central and Western Europe.

A period after the introduction of agriculture saw ways of life change in the European continent. In Britain and Ireland cereal farming seems to have stopped completely for hundreds of years (except in the Orkney Islands). Instead people were raising cattle and pigs:

Did Neolithic farming fail? The case for a Bronze Age agricultural revolution in the British Isles:

This paper rewrites the early history of Britain, showing that while the cultivation of cereals arrived there in about 4000 cal BC, it did not last. Between 3300 and 1500 BC Britons became largely pastoral, reverting only with a major upsurge of agricultural activity in the Middle Bronze Age. This loss of interest in arable farming was accompanied by a decline in population, seen by the authors as having a climatic impetus *(rejected by the prior study)*. But they also point to this period as the time of construction of the great megalithic monuments, including Stonehenge. We are left wondering whether pastoralism was all that bad, and whether it was one intrusion after another that set the agenda on the island.
http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ant/086/ant0860707.htm

Interestingly, rapid decline of grain agriculture in favour of pastoralism in Britain is dated to 5000 BP and is linked to a period of megalithism in the British Isles:

“Part of the reason why pastoralists built monuments such as Stonehenge lies in the importance of periodic large gatherings for dispersed, mobile groups.”. And that seems like a common explanation of Stonehenge I’ve heard recently – a place for a mobile cattle based population with a communal tradition to meet and sacrifice.
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/herders-not-farmers-built-stonehenge

There were large genetic changes in northern Europe around this time, in which Sardinian and Basque-like farmers occupying almost all of Europe were replaced by Indo-Europeans with substantial amounts of indigenous hunter-gatherer/ancestral North Eurasian ancestry, in what would be a double population replacement in Europe (the first being the initial invasion of the farmers).

A similar phenomenon occurred earlier in the Balkans: In Old Europe' (also here), before the first cities of Mesopotamia, there were large agricultural settlements exhibiting advanced metallurgy — then everything stopped and the settlements ended. No permanent settlements in the Balkan uplands can be dated between 5900 and 5300 BP. In different periods pastoral Indo-European horse riders crushed Old Europe and eventually imposed their language almost everywhere in Europe (except, it seems, for the Basques).

someofmybestfriendsarewhite:

Ultimately this society cannot decide what to do with the empty plinth in Trafalgar Square. Because you can’t have a hero or a military figure in this post-modernity. Why not? It’s considered to be conceptually Fascistic. And that’s why we have pregnant Thalidomide victims instead.- Jonathan Bowden

Liberalism and modern art is absolutely pathological. Glorifying disease in such a manner only signifies sickness, especially when done as a collective.

someofmybestfriendsarewhite:

Ultimately this society cannot decide what to do with the empty plinth in Trafalgar Square. Because you can’t have a hero or a military figure in this post-modernity. Why not? It’s considered to be conceptually Fascistic. And that’s why we have pregnant Thalidomide victims instead.

- Jonathan Bowden

Liberalism and modern art is absolutely pathological. Glorifying disease in such a manner only signifies sickness, especially when done as a collective.

(via hierarchical-aestheticism)

irishnationalist:

liberalpropagandagroup:

thelunaticyouarelookingfor:

jcoleknowsbest:

talesofthestarshipregeneration:

ethiopienne:

White, Bigoted, and Young: The Data of Hate (NYTimes)

76% of users on the Internet’s most popular online hate site, , are under 30.

but wait for teh old people to die off nd racism will be solved huh?

^^^^

We can probably singlehandedly blame this on Don Black’s son, Derek Black, an alum of my school who built Stormfront’s youth page when he was younger in order to recruit/convert in that crucial 14-17 range to bring in brand loyalty to the white nationalist movement by the 18-29 range (keep in mind 14-17 being only a 3 year range actually makes it their most proportionally large group with the other ranges being larger age ranges)

I currently live in Montana. It’s one of the most miserable, disgusting, and inbred cesspools of hatred and abject stupidity that I have ever seen. It doesn’t shock me at all that they’re on the hate bandwagon so hardcore.

-Eli

From the article:

"The states with the most members per capita are Montana, Alaska and Idaho. These states tend to be overwhelmingly white. Does this mean that growing up with little diversity fosters hate?

Probably not. Since those states have a higher proportion of non-Jewish white people, they have more potential members for a group that attacks Jews and nonwhites. The percentage of Stormfront’s target audience that joins is actually higher in areas with more minorities. This is particularly true when you look at Stormfront’s members who are 18 and younger and therefore do not themselves choose where they live.

Among this age group, California, a state with one of the largest minority populations, has a membership rate 25 percent higher than the national average.

Additional info:

"The most relevant set of results for our study are those on racism as a function of neighbourhood integration. In particular, Skogan (1995) reports that residential proximity to blacks is associated with greater racial prejudice.

This association is confirmed in our study.

Even more additional info:

Higher black concentrations are associated with declines in the percentage of white registered voters who are Democrats and an increase in the percentage who are Republicans.

Hurr durr dumb rednecks hurrr Montana inbred hurr ignorance breeds hate

Read the fucking article you before you run your cunt mouth.

Good post. The same phenomenon is only affirmed by more recent studies. One being the infamous Putnam study and another being this one. Both observe that in more diverse settings people not only distrust who do not look like them, but even people who do.

Even so, most ardent white liberals who purport to advocate racial diversity and/or miscegenation are secretly in adherence to the principles of “whiteness.” It’s amusing to observe that most fake self-hating whites are individuals who reside in all-white communities—implicit whiteness in action. Like stormfront, they too put together their pro-diversity, pro-multiculturalism movements in the presence of an all-white social network. Ethnocentric non-whites tend to come along for the ride with their white liberal pawns, but only because such movements are typically about supporting non-white gain over and/or relative to that of whites.

  • The Flynn Effect

The Flynn effect refers to a significant increase in raw IQ scores over the last 100 years or so - about three points per decade, in fact. Those who reject the importance of biology for individual differences in all psychophysiology traits, in this case intelligence, reference the Flynn effect without understanding several key factors: The Flynn effect does not mean our ancestors were idiots, IQ isn’t that malleable under environmental influence (as all recent twin studies show) and the principal component of intelligence, identified as "g" (general intelligence factor), is not time dependent.

If the Flynn effect was exactly like what many people think it is; a massive increase in OVERALL IQ over the last century, then we’d expect to see a larger proportion of people who posses the mathematical ability of Gauss, or people who can write music like Bach, but we don’t. It would also imply that the intellectual elite of the past PALES in comparison to the present, which is just not the case.

The dramatic gains are seen only in certain areas of intelligence, which are the areas in which modern life provides much more stimulation.

Beyond the Flynn Effect, a lecture by Professor James Flynn:
http://www.psychometrics.cam.ac.uk/about-us/directory/beyond-the-flynn-effect

The above is a lecture by Flynn. Notable is Table 1 (the image of this post), which displays results over the last 55 years from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) divided into 10 subsets:

In fact, in the last 55 years only small changes in the three mental skills were observed: information (general knowledge), arithmetic, and vocabulary; 2.15, 2.30 and 4.40 IQ points respectively.

Rather than mental ability, substantial improvements in IQ are found only in the visual logic subtests. An increase of visual imagery is clearly one of the major changes in the social environment in the 20th Century. People have much more practice at decoding images quickly than in the past:

newyorker: Reading books chronically understimulates the senses. Unlike the longstanding tradition of gameplaying—which engages the child in a vivid, three-dimensional world filled with moving images and musical sound-scapes, navigated and controlled with complex muscular movements—books are simply a barren string of words on the page.

Most people 100 years ago were massively deprived by modern standards — GDP per capita in the West is much higher now, and average years of schooling has increased dramatically:

Flynn: Rising to the formal level is highly correlated with years of schooling. The 14-year olds of today have had at least 8 years of schooling with more to come. In the America of 1900, adults had an average of about 7 years of schooling, a median of 6.5 years, and 25 percent had completed 4 years or less (Folger & Nam, 1967)

This implies that variance in adult IQ must have been much larger in the past. Famous minds of the past had much more exposure to ideas and abstract thinking than a a rural child who grew up on a farm with little or no education, few books and no TV/radio. A much larger portion of people today practice professions that would be deemed "cognitively demanding" compared to those who lived in the 1900s.

Unfortunately, over the past 30 years there is evidence of a reverse trend in that the scores of children in the Raven’s Progressive Matrices test, which is designed to measure the reasoning (mental) ability component of Spearman’s g factor:

British teenagers have lower IQs than their counterparts did 30 years ago:

Tests carried out in 1980 and again in 2008 show that the IQ score of an average 14-year-old dropped by more than two points over the period. Among those in the upper half of the intelligence scale, a group that is typically dominated by children from middle class families, performance was even worse, with an average IQ score six points below what it was 28 years ago. … The author of the latest study, believes the abnormal drop in British teenage IQ could be due to youth culture having “stagnated” or even dumbed down. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/4548943/British-teenagers-have-lower-IQs-than-their-counterparts-did-30-years-ago.html
The Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19251490

Kids today are not all that smarter, although they are better at setting up the latest gadgets…

Further reading:

Also see; this series of posts on intelligence.

rtrixie:

problematic-turtle:

note-a-bear:

dynastylnoire:

futureblackpolitician:

murderwhitepeople:

It’s been a long time since I’ve woken up to such good news. 

Opinions, anyone?

I wish I had the kind of power to do something like this…

ha

This website will be the fucking death of me I swear.

People are actually glorifying Robert Mugabe, what are we coming to?

Robert Mugabe is a vile and viscous dictator responsible for the ruin of his own people, using widespread torture and political murder. He is viciously homophobic, calling gays “worse than dogs and pigs”.

Oh but he hates white people, so somehow that makes him a Tumblr hero.

Fuck this website so hard.

Jesus christ tumblr. Mugabe is the sole reason Zimbabwe is one of the greatest shitholes on earth. Once the white farmers were largely murdered or evicted, the country started starving. Good job, Mugabe!

(via einherjartilvalhall)


Genetic Variation in Northern Europe - Continued

Geographical structure and differential natural selection amongst North European populations:

… The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like the British Isles, and this information can then be applied to finely dissect the ancestry of the European-Australian and -American samples. They simultaneously point to the importance of considering population stratification in what might be considered a small homogenous region. There is evidence from FST based analysis of genic and non-genic SNPs that differential positive selection has operated across these populations despite their short divergence time and relatively similar geographic and environmental range…genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2009/03/05/gr.083394.108.abstract

This study analysed the whole genomes of individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia and CEU (a HapMap sample of European-Americans)).
The first image shows a PCA plot of Northern European population structure, including Australians:
As expected, Finland is the first notable separation from the other Northern Europeans.
The next image shows the results of the structure analysis:
In the top graph (B) Swedes (and to some extent Danes) possess some admixture with the Finnish-related (red) element in K=2. Similarly, in K=3 the blue vs. green division differentiates continental Germanics (mainly Scandinavians and to a lesser extent Dutch) from Irish, British and Australians.
In the bottom graph (C) the Finns are removed. In K=4 the UK population clearly separates into three elements: "Dutch" (green), "Scandinavian" (red) and "Irish/British" (blue). Related research on population structure, which is confounded by the Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions, within the British Isles can be found here and here.
The last image shows population pairwise F ST (genetic differentiation) among the populations:
Unsurprisingly, Australians are well matched to the UK individuals, but the UK individuals show greater similarity with the Danish (1.45) and Dutch (1.34) than to the Irish (1.55). The Swedes are a relatively diverse (in Northern European terms) population and will show more (or less) variation to other Germanics depending on the region sampled (the samples in this study were all nationwide twin cohorts). Northern Swedes exhibit more varied ancestry and generally show some influence from the Finns and Sami. In a similar vein, populations of the British Isles will share more or less in common depending on the regions sampled, with the Welsh as persistent outliers. 
Genetic Variation in Northern Europe - Continued

Geographical structure and differential natural selection amongst North European populations:

… The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like the British Isles, and this information can then be applied to finely dissect the ancestry of the European-Australian and -American samples. They simultaneously point to the importance of considering population stratification in what might be considered a small homogenous region. There is evidence from FST based analysis of genic and non-genic SNPs that differential positive selection has operated across these populations despite their short divergence time and relatively similar geographic and environmental range…genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2009/03/05/gr.083394.108.abstract

This study analysed the whole genomes of individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia and CEU (a HapMap sample of European-Americans)).
The first image shows a PCA plot of Northern European population structure, including Australians:
As expected, Finland is the first notable separation from the other Northern Europeans.
The next image shows the results of the structure analysis:
In the top graph (B) Swedes (and to some extent Danes) possess some admixture with the Finnish-related (red) element in K=2. Similarly, in K=3 the blue vs. green division differentiates continental Germanics (mainly Scandinavians and to a lesser extent Dutch) from Irish, British and Australians.
In the bottom graph (C) the Finns are removed. In K=4 the UK population clearly separates into three elements: "Dutch" (green), "Scandinavian" (red) and "Irish/British" (blue). Related research on population structure, which is confounded by the Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions, within the British Isles can be found here and here.
The last image shows population pairwise F ST (genetic differentiation) among the populations:
Unsurprisingly, Australians are well matched to the UK individuals, but the UK individuals show greater similarity with the Danish (1.45) and Dutch (1.34) than to the Irish (1.55). The Swedes are a relatively diverse (in Northern European terms) population and will show more (or less) variation to other Germanics depending on the region sampled (the samples in this study were all nationwide twin cohorts). Northern Swedes exhibit more varied ancestry and generally show some influence from the Finns and Sami. In a similar vein, populations of the British Isles will share more or less in common depending on the regions sampled, with the Welsh as persistent outliers. 
Genetic Variation in Northern Europe - Continued

Geographical structure and differential natural selection amongst North European populations:

… The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like the British Isles, and this information can then be applied to finely dissect the ancestry of the European-Australian and -American samples. They simultaneously point to the importance of considering population stratification in what might be considered a small homogenous region. There is evidence from FST based analysis of genic and non-genic SNPs that differential positive selection has operated across these populations despite their short divergence time and relatively similar geographic and environmental range…genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2009/03/05/gr.083394.108.abstract

This study analysed the whole genomes of individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia and CEU (a HapMap sample of European-Americans)).
The first image shows a PCA plot of Northern European population structure, including Australians:
As expected, Finland is the first notable separation from the other Northern Europeans.
The next image shows the results of the structure analysis:
In the top graph (B) Swedes (and to some extent Danes) possess some admixture with the Finnish-related (red) element in K=2. Similarly, in K=3 the blue vs. green division differentiates continental Germanics (mainly Scandinavians and to a lesser extent Dutch) from Irish, British and Australians.
In the bottom graph (C) the Finns are removed. In K=4 the UK population clearly separates into three elements: "Dutch" (green), "Scandinavian" (red) and "Irish/British" (blue). Related research on population structure, which is confounded by the Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions, within the British Isles can be found here and here.
The last image shows population pairwise F ST (genetic differentiation) among the populations:
Unsurprisingly, Australians are well matched to the UK individuals, but the UK individuals show greater similarity with the Danish (1.45) and Dutch (1.34) than to the Irish (1.55). The Swedes are a relatively diverse (in Northern European terms) population and will show more (or less) variation to other Germanics depending on the region sampled (the samples in this study were all nationwide twin cohorts). Northern Swedes exhibit more varied ancestry and generally show some influence from the Finns and Sami. In a similar vein, populations of the British Isles will share more or less in common depending on the regions sampled, with the Welsh as persistent outliers.
  • Genetic Variation in Northern Europe - Continued

Geographical structure and differential natural selection amongst North European populations:

The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like the British Isles, and this information can then be applied to finely dissect the ancestry of the European-Australian and -American samples. They simultaneously point to the importance of considering population stratification in what might be considered a small homogenous region. There is evidence from FST based analysis of genic and non-genic SNPs that differential positive selection has operated across these populations despite their short divergence time and relatively similar geographic and environmental range…
genome.cshlp.org/content/early/2009/03/05/gr.083394.108.abstract

This study analysed the whole genomes of individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia and CEU (a HapMap sample of European-Americans)).

  • The first image shows a PCA plot of Northern European population structure, including Australians:

As expected, Finland is the first notable separation from the other Northern Europeans.

  • The next image shows the results of the structure analysis:

In the top graph (B) Swedes (and to some extent Danes) possess some admixture with the Finnish-related (red) element in K=2. Similarly, in K=3 the blue vs. green division differentiates continental Germanics (mainly Scandinavians and to a lesser extent Dutch) from Irish, British and Australians.

In the bottom graph (C) the Finns are removed. In K=4 the UK population clearly separates into three elements: "Dutch" (green), "Scandinavian" (red) and "Irish/British" (blue). Related research on population structure, which is confounded by the Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions, within the British Isles can be found here and here.

Unsurprisingly, Australians are well matched to the UK individuals, but the UK individuals show greater similarity with the Danish (1.45) and Dutch (1.34) than to the Irish (1.55). The Swedes are a relatively diverse (in Northern European terms) population and will show more (or less) variation to other Germanics depending on the region sampled (the samples in this study were all nationwide twin cohorts). Northern Swedes exhibit more varied ancestry and generally show some influence from the Finns and Sami. In a similar vein, populations of the British Isles will share more or less in common depending on the regions sampled, with the Welsh as persistent outliers.

Racial Differences in Newborn Behaviour:

Demonstrates some of the research results obtained from the application of the Cambridge Behavioral and Neurological Assessment Scales to normal newborns in hospital nurseries. Indicates that there are standard differences in temperament or behavior among babies from different ethnic backgrounds — Caucasian, Navajo, Aborigine, African — and that such differences among humans are biological as well as cultural. Tests include the Moro startle response, the newborn’s wailing response, and the infant’s ability to control its head and neck muscles.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAAbDzJhoD8
Human Sociobiology: A Holistic Approach (1979) - this discusses these experiments more in-depth and is open to all.

Compare also to this post on the r-K Selection Theory as applied to humans. r/K is the selection of a combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring. A basic law of evolution links reproductive strategy to intelligence and brain development. The less complex an animal’s brain, the greater its reproductive output. The more complex an animal’s brain, the longer it spends maturing. This distinction between r and K strategists is laid out poignantly in the image below:

An extreme type of r strategist in the animal kingdom would be an oyster - vast litter size, no parental care, and rapid maturation. Whereas an example of a K strategist would be a chimp - more modest (about 1 every 5 years) litter size, more parental investment and longer development.

In relation to humans, gestation time varies among differing ethnic groups, with African babies spending less time in the womb than those of Asian (Japanese) and European descent:

Duration of human singleton pregnancies in Ibadan, Nigeria:
The consistent finding of a shorter length of gestation in these and other black women suggests earlier maturity of the fetoplacental unit.

The video demonstrates that newborn black and Australian Aborigine infants show greater control over their neck and head muscles, relative to white and Asian infants. In fact, newborn Aborigine infants are able to control and lift their heads up just as well as white babies at 1 month old.

Comparative tests on a human and a chimpanzee infant of approximately the same age (1932):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BTSJc5JwxHs

Similar tests have been performed comparing humans and chimps. Monkeys are born with a brain very nearly 100% its adult size, while chimpanzees and gorillas are born with about 60% of adult brain size. Human babies are born with a brain that is less than 30% of its adult size. For the first few months of life, monkeys are better than apes in most tests of sensory-motor behaviour, and infant apes are superior to infant humans of the same age on these tasks; humans take longer to develop largely as a result of possessing a larger, more complex brain.